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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population

From: Association between physical performance and incidence of end-stage renal disease in older adults: a national wide cohort study

n Groups according to the TUG test results P-value
< 10 s 10–14.9 s 15–19.9 s ≥20 s
1,159,126   393,655  
Sex, male 536,331 (46.3) 138,662 (40.8) 16,636 (36.4) 2610 (33.9) <.0001
Cigarette smoking      <.0001
 Non-smoker 801,370 (69.1) 247,511 (72.7) 34,139 (74.7) 5842 (75.9)  
 Past history of smoking 216,258 (18.7) 52,169 (15.3) 6249 (13.7) 1018 (13.2)  
 Active smoker 141,498 (12.2) 40,596 (11.9) 5296 (11.6) 835 (10.9)  
Alcohol consumption      <.0001
 None 820,995 (70.8) 250,469 (73.6) 34,726 (76.0) 6046 (78.6)  
 Mild 283,425 (24.5) 74,619 (21.9) 9127 (20.0) 1365 (17.7)  
 Heavy 54,706 (4.7) 15,188 (4.5) 1831 (4.0) 284 (3.7)  
Regular exercise, Yes 301,620 (26.0) 80,237 (23.6) 10,031 (22.0) 1516 (19.7) <.0001
Income      <.0001
 Q1 (lowest) 321,817 (27.8) 97,320 (28.6) 13,676 (29.9) 2452 (31.9)  
 Q2 225,044 (19.4) 66,378 (19.5) 8921 (19.5) 1543 (20.1)  
 Q3 304,506 (26.3) 90,793 (26.7) 12,050 (26.4) 1931 (25.1)  
 Q4 (highest) 307,759 (26.6) 85,785 (25.2) 11,037 (24.2) 1769 (23.0)  
Comorbidity
 Dyslipidemia 444,344 (38.3) 135,290 (39.8) 18,430 (40.3) 3169 (41.2) <.0001
 Diabetes mellitus 223,381 (19.3) 70,836 (20.8) 10,206 (22.3) 1891 (24.6) <.0001
 Hypertension 599,132 (51.7) 185,989 (54.7) 26,200 (57.4) 4513 (58.7) <.0001
 History of MI 9391 (0.8) 2885 (0.9) 410 (0.9) 116 (1.5) <.0001
 History of stroke 41,371 (3.6) 14,271 (4.2) 2291 (5.0) 596 (7.8) <.0001
 CKD 115,893 (10.0) 37,670 (11.1) 5622 (12.3) 1086 (14.1) <.0001
eGFR (using MDRD, mL/min/1.73m2) 84.7 ± 36.1 86.0 ± 36.2 85.0 ± 31.2 84.7 ± 41.3 <.0001
 15–29 1713 (0.2) 627 (0.2) 112 (0.3) 33 (0.4) <.0001
 30–59 114,180 (9.9) 37,043 (10.9) 5510 (12.1) 1053 (13.7)  
 60–89 798,406 (68.9) 219,894 (64.6) 29,361 (64.3) 4851 (63.0)  
 ≥90 244,827 (21.1) 82,712 (24.3) 10,701 (23.4) 1758 (22.9)  
Proteinuria      <.0001
 Absent 1098,130 (94.7) 320,451 (94.2) 42,752 (93.6) 7141 (92.8)  
 ± (trace) 27,503 (2.4) 9018 (2.7) 1267 (2.8) 246 (3.2)  
 1+ 21,370 (1.8) 6882 (2.0) 1032 (2.3) 183 (2.4)  
 2+ 9054 (0.8) 2821 (0.8) 430 (0.9) 83 (1.1)  
 3+ 2543 (0.2) 913 (0.3) 162 (0.4) 37 (0.5)  
 4+ 526 (0.1) 191 (0.1) 41 (0.1) 5 (0.1)  
BMI (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 2.9 24.4 ± 3.1 24.6 ± 3.3 24.6 ± 3.5 <.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 82.8 ± 8.2 83.1 ± 8.3 83.6 ± 8.5 83.8 ± 8.9 <.0001
SBP (mmHg) 127.7 ± 15.0 128.4 ± 15.2 129.1 ± 15.6 128.8 ± 16.0 <.0001
DBP (mmHg) 77.4 ± 9.6 77.7 ± 9.7 78.1 ± 9.9 78.3 ± 10.1 <.0001
Serum glucose (mg/dL) 103.8 ± 25.0 104.0 ± 26.5 104.4 ± 27.6 105.8 ± 29.8 <.0001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 53.8 ± 15.4 54.0 ± 16.4 54.3 ± 19.6 53.2 ± 14.2 <.0001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 116.3 ± 38.7 116.2 ± 39.5 116.0 ± 38.8 116.8 ± 40.5 0.4956
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 196.1 ± 38.4 197.0 ± 39.1 197.4 ± 40.0 197.7 ± 41.2 <.0001
TUG (sec) 7.2 ± 1.5 10.6 ± 1.1 16.0 ± 1.3 25.6 ± 12.2 <.0001
Follow-up duration (year) 5.0 ± 2.0 5.3 ± 2.1 5.6 ± 2.1 5.5 ± 2.1 <.0001
  1. Data shown as number (percent) or mean ± (standard deviation)
  2. BMI body mass index, CKD chronic kidney disease, DBP diastolic blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, MI myocardial infarction, MDRD Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, TUG timed up-and-go test