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Table 2 Patient characteristics by ESRD recovery status

From: Predictors of kidney function recovery among incident ESRD patients

  All Patients Patients With Recovery Patients Without Recovery Univariate Cox model
372,387 16,930 355,457 Estimate 95% CI p-value
Sex
 Male 214,906 9980 (4.6%) 204,926 (95.4%) ref ref ref
 Female 157,481 6950 (4.4%) 150,531 (95.6%) 0.95 0.92, 0.98 0.0013
Race
 White 247,388 13,306 (5.4%) 234,082 (94.6%) ref ref ref
 Black 102,499 3013 (2.9%) 99,486 (97.1%) 0.53 0.50, 0.58 < 0.0001
 Native American 3541 98 (2.8%) 3443 (97.2%) 0.49 0.40, 0.60 < 0.0001
 Asian 13,675 368 (2.7%) 13,307 (97.3%) 0.48 0.43, 0.53 < 0.0001
 Pacific Islander 4413 100 (2.3%) 4313 (97.7%) 0.40 0.33, 0.48 < 0.0001
 Other/unknown 871 45 (5.2%) 826 (94.8%) 0.96 0.71, 1.28 0.76
Mean age, years (SD) 372,387 63.0 (14.3) 63.4 (14.8) 1.001 1.00, 1.002 0.29
Age in years (category)
 0–44 40,796 1835 (4.5%) 38,961 (95.5%) ref ref Ref
 45–64 143,006 6524 (4.6%) 136,482 (95.4%) 1.03 0.98, 1.09 0.26
 65+ 188,585 8571 (4.5%) 180,014 (95.5%) 1.08 1.02, 1.13 0.004
Primary ESRD cause (category)
 Diabetes 179,438 5429 (3%) 174,009 (97%) ref ref ref
 Hypertension 112,091 3945 (3.5%) 108,146 (96.5%) 1.18 1.13, 1.22 < 0.0001
 Glomerulonephritis 25,493 1381 (5.4%) 24,112 (94.6%) 1.78 1.68, 1.89 < 0.0001
 Cystic Kidney 6286 70 (1.1%) 6216 (98.9%) 0.34 0.28, 0.45 < 0.0001
 Other Urologic 4776 262 (5.5%) 4514 (94.5%) 1.82 1.64, 2.10 < 0.0001
 Other Cause 34,961 4645 (13.3%) 30,316 (86.7%) 4.92 4.73, 5.11 < 0.0001
 Unknown Cause 7868 661 (8.4%) 7207 (91.6%) 2.96 2.73, 3.20 < 0.0001
 Missing Cause 1474 537 (36.4%) 937 (63.6%) 17.85 16.33, 19.50 < 0.0001
Comorbidities
 Diabetes Mellitus 219,004 8197 (3.7%) 210,807 (96.3%) 0.64 0.62, 0.67 < 0.0001
 Atherosclerotic Heart Disease 58,333 2573 (4.4%) 55,760 (95.6%) 0.99 0.95, 1.03 0.60
 Heart Failure 113,142 4560 (4.0%) 108,582 (96.0%) 0.87 0.84, 0.90 < 0.001
 Hypertension 326,100 12,978 (4.0%) 313,122 (96.0%) 0.44 0.43, 0.46 < 0.001
 Peripheral Vascular Disease 42,162 1947 (4.6%) 40,215 (95.4%) 1.04 0.99, 1.09 0.07
 COPD 36,486 2038 (5.6%) 34,448 (94.4%) 1.32 1.26, 1.38 < 0.001
 Cancer 26,453 1640 (6.2%) 24,813 (93.8%) 1.50 1.42, 1.58 < 0.001
 Cerebrovascular Disease 32,996 1348 (4.1%) 31,648 (95.9%) 0.90 0.85, 0.95 0.0003
Pre-ESRD ESA Use       < 0.0001
 No 205,728 10,216 (5%) 195,512 (95%) ref ref ref
 Yes 51,895 1103 (2.1%) 50,792 (97.9%) 0.42 0.39, 0.45 < 0.0001
 Unknown 114,764 5611 (4.9%) 109,153 (95.1%) 0.99 0.96, 1.03 0.67
Pre-ESRD Nephrologist care
 No 95,181 7832 (8.2%) 87,349 (91.8%) ref ref ref
 Yes 223,610 5645 (2.5%) 217,965 (97.5%) 0.29 0.28, 0.30 < 0.0001
 Unknown 53,596 3453 (6.4%) 50,143 (93.6%) 0.78 0.75, 0.82 < 0.0001
Insurance Coverage
 Medicare only 110,954 5096 (4.6%) 105,858 (95.4%) ref ref ref
 Employer only 41,771 1953 (4.7%) 39,818 (95.3%) 0.97 0.92, 1.02 0.27
 Medicaid only 46,707 1854 (4%) 44,853 (96%) 0.83 0.78, 0.87 < 0.0001
 Medicare and Medicaid 54,724 2087 (3.8%) 52,637 (96.2%) 0.82 0.78, 0.86 < 0.0001
 Medicare and employer 22,187 994 (4.5%) 21,193 (95.5%) 0.97 0.90, 1.03 0.30
 Medicare and other 46,250 2252 (4.9%) 43,998 (95.1%) 1.08 1.02, 0.13 0.004
 None 30,019 1788 (6%) 28,231 (94%) 1.26 1.20, 1.33 < 0.0001
 Other only 19,775 906 (4.6%) 18,869 (95.4%) 0.96 0.90, 1.03 0.30
Lab values at ESRD Initiation
 Serum Creatinine (mg/dL) 370,847 5.7 (3.8) 6.7 (10.3) 0.96 0.9, 0.91 < 0.0001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 367,099 11.7 (5.6) 10.1 (4.6) 1.07 1.07, 1.07 < 0.0001
 Serum Albumin (g/dL) 251,335 3 (2.3) 3.2 (3.2) 0.73 0.71, 0.75 < 0.0001
  1. ESRD End-stage renal disease, ESA Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease