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Table 2 Effect of Selected Covariates on DD40

From: Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased risk of adverse kidney outcomes and mortality in patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease: an observational cohort study

Covariate Cox Proportional Hazards Model Logistic Regression Model
Hazard Ratio (95 % CI), DD40 up to 10 years P valuea Odds Ratio (95 % CI), DD40 within 2 years P valuea
Continuous Variables     
Serum bicarbonate, per 1 mEq/L increase 0.926 (0.922‒0.930) < 0.001 0.873 (0.866‒0.879) < 0.001
Age, per 1-year increase 1.005 (1.003‒1.006) < 0.001 1.000 (0.998‒1.002) 0.846
Log ACR, per 1 mg/g increase 1.160 (1.150‒1.170) < 0.001 1.209 (1.190‒1.229) < 0.001
eGFR, per 1 mL/min/1.73 m2 increase 0.984 (0.983‒0.985) < 0.001 0.967 (0.965‒0.969) < 0.001
Categorical Variables  
Male 1.035 (1.006‒1.065) 0.017 1.197 (1.135‒1.263) < 0.001
Race: African American (vs. Caucasian) 1.325 (1.268‒1.384) < 0.001 1.436 (1.321‒1.560) < 0.001
Race: Asian (vs. Caucasian) 0.886 (0.802‒0.978) 0.016 0.845 (0.704‒1.013) 0.068
Race: Other/unknown (vs. Caucasian) 1.078 (1.022‒1.138) 0.006 1.094 (0.989‒1.210) 0.079
Diabetes 1.034 (1.000‒1.069) 0.049 0.924 (0.868‒0.983) 0.013
Heart Failure 1.489 (1.437‒1.543) < 0.001 1.828 (1.711‒1.953) < 0.001
Hypertension 0.896 (0.863‒0.931) < 0.001 0.938 (0.871‒1.011) 0.094
CCI score: 1 vs. 0 1.034 (0.982‒1.090) 0.204 1.157 (1.045‒1.281) 0.005
CCI score: 2 vs. 0 1.115 (1.060‒1.173) < 0.001 1.212 (1.100‒1.334) < 0.001
CCI score: ≥ 3 vs. 0 1.371 (1.310‒1.434) < 0.001 1.739 (1.597‒1.895) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: ACR, albumin-creatinine ratio; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CI, confidence interval; DD40, a  40 % decline in eGFR, renal replacement therapy, or all-cause mortality; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. a Statistically significant at P < 0.05