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Table 1 Characteristics of individuals across quartiles (Q1-Q4) of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15)

From: Growth differentiation factor-15 and incident chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study

  GDF15 quartiles p for trend a
Q1 (n = 1080) Q2 (n = 1079) Q3 (n = 1080) Q4 (n = 1079)
GDF-15 (AU) 8.09 ± 0.26 8.56 ± 0.11 8.90 ± 0.14 9.47 ± 0.38 < 0.0001
Age (years) 54.6 ± 5.60 56.6 ± 5.70 58.6 ± 5.50 60.1 ± 5.60 < 0.0001
Sex (male, %) 426 (39.4) 425 (39.4) 426 (39.4) 425 (39.4) 0.99
Waist circumference (cm) 81.6 ± 11.6 82.3 ± 12.3 83.5 ± 12.9 85.3 ± 13.5 < 0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) b 4.80 (4.60-5.20) 4.90 (4.60-5.20) 4.90 (4.60-5.30) 5.00 (4.70-5.40) < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136.1 ± 16.7 140 ± 18.9 142.4 ± 19.3 144.7 ± 19.3 < 0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 85.6 ± 8.60 86.6 ± 9.40 86.9 ± 9.50 87.5 ± 9.60 < 0.001
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.09 ± 0.94 4.05 ± 0.94 4.25 ± 0.99 4.24 ± 1.03 < 0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/L) b 1.00 (0.50-1.90) 1.10 (0.60-2.30) 1.40 (0.70-2.90) 1.90 (1.00-4.20) < 0.0001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 94.3 ± 12.5 90.5 ± 12.2 88.1 ± 12.5 83.8 ± 14.5 < 0.0001
N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (AU) − 0.31 ± 0.92 −0.06 ± 0.94 0.09 ± 0.97 0.26 ± 1.03 < 0.0001
High alcohol consumption (%) 42 (3.89) 37 (3.43) 34 (3.15) 34 (3.15) 0.31
Smoking n (%)      
Never 528 (48.9) 458 (42.4) 420 (38.9) 369 (34.2) < 0.0001
Former 451 (41.8) 428 (39.7) 410 (38.0) 340 (31.5) < 0.0001
Current 101 (9.35) 193 (17.9) 250 (23.1) 370 (34.3) < 0.0001
Anti-hypertensive medication (%) 121 (11.2) 150 (13.9) 186 (17.2) 235 (21.8) < 0.0001
Diabetes (%) 40 (3.70) 59 (5.47) 81 (7.50) 144 (13.3) < 0.0001
Cardiovascular disease (%) 9 (0.83) 22 (2.04) 28 (2.59) 43 (3.99) < 0.0001
  1. AU arbitrary units, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the combined Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine and cystatin C equation
  2. a Analysis of variance or logistic regression analysis
  3. b Glucose and C-reactive protein are presented as median (interquartile range in brackets) due to skewed distributions. All the other continuous values are presented as means ± standard deviation, unless otherwise stated