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Table 2 Incident cases of register-based chronic kidney disease in relation to growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15)

From: Growth differentiation factor-15 and incident chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p for trend a Per 1 standard deviation change in GDF-15 p a
GDF-15 range male (AU) 6.09-8.47 8.47-8.82 8.82-9.21 9.21-11.2   
GDF-15 range female (AU) 6.78-8.35 8.35-8.66 8.66-9.02 9.02-12.3    
No. of subjects 1080 1079 1080 1079
Incidence b 16 31 43 75
Incidence (per 1000 person-years) 0.74 1.45 2.08 3.93  
Model 1 c d Reference 2.08 (1.14, 3.81) 3.15 (1.77, 5.60) 6.58 (3.82, 11.3) < 0.0001 1.97 (1.75, 2.22) < 0.0001
Model 2 c e Reference 1.66 (0.90, 3.04) 1.98 (1.10, 3.56) 3.46 (1.97, 6.10) < 0.0001 1.81 (1.56, 2.10) < 0.0001
Model 3 c f Reference 1.56 (0.85, 2.86) 1.66 (0.91, 3.00) 2.74 (1.53, 4.89) < 0.001 1.51 (1.27, 1.80) < 0.0001
Model 4 c g Reference 1.57 (0.85, 2.88) 1.62 (0.90, 2.92) 2.37 (1.33, 4.24) < 0.01 1.39 (1.16, 1.65) < 0.001
  1. AU arbitrary units
  2. a Analysis by Cox proportional hazards model
  3. b Defined as 585-586 according to International Classification of Diseases 9, and N18 and N19 according to International Classification of Diseases 10
  4. c Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval)
  5. d Crude model
  6. e Adjusted for age and sex
  7. f Additionally adjusted for waist circumference, smoking, high alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein level, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and anti-hypertensive drug medication
  8. g Additionally adjusted for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate