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Table 1 Characteristics of septic patients with and without AKI progression

From: Combining renal cell arrest and damage biomarkers to predict progressive AKI in patient with sepsis

Characteristics Overall (n = 149) Progression (n = 63) Non-Progression (n = 86) P
Demographics
 Age, y 59.6 ± 16.0 60.8 ± 15.2 58.8 ± 16.6 0.536
 Male, n (%) 99 (66.4) 34 (54.0) 65 (75.6) 0.006
 Hypertension, n (%) 67 (45.0) 28 (44.4) 39 (45.3) 0.913
 Diabetes, n (%) 34 (22.8) 15 (23.8) 19 (22.1) 0.805
 Prior CKDa, n (%) 15 (10.1) 8 (12.7) 7 (8.1) 0.361
Mode of admission    
 Medical, n (%) 27 (18.1) 14 (22.2) 13 (15.1) 0.266
 Surgical, n (%) 117 (78.5) 45 (71.4) 72 (83.7) 0.071
 Emergency, n (%) 5 (3.4) 4 (6.3) 1 (1.2) 0.082
Primary source of sepsis
Pulmonary, n (%) 90 (60.4) 48 (76.2) 42 (48.8) 0.001
Intra-abdominal, n (%) 27 (18.1) 9 (14.3) 18 (20.9) 0.345
Soft tissue, n (%) 6 (4.0) 2 (3.2) 4 (4.7) 0.651
Urinary, n (%) 4 (2.7) 2 (3.2) 2 (2.3) 0.751
Other, n (%) 40 (26.8) 14 (22.2) 26 (30.2) 0.276
Baseline renal function
 Serum creatinine, mg/dL 0.9 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 0.861
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73m2 90.7 ± 27.0 87.8 ± 28.5 91.7 ± 25.9 0.429
Parameters on ICU admission
 APACHE II 20.0 (13.0-25.0) 23.0 (18.0-27.0) 17.0 (11.8-23.0) < 0.001
 SOFA 6.0 (4.0-8.0) 7.0 (5.0-9.0) 5.0 (4.0-7.0) 0.031
 MODS 5.0 (3.0-6.0) 5.0 (4.0-7.0) 4.0 (3.0-6.0) 0.033
 Hemoglobin, g/L 118.1 ± 78.1 106.7 ± 30.4 126.5 ± 98.8 0.014
 Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 9.6 ± 7.4 10.6 ± 8.0 8.9 ± 6.9 0.274
 Serum albumin, g/L 29.3 ± 7.7 28.2 ± 6.9 30.1 ± 8.1 0.072
 Blood lactate, mmol/L 2.9 ± 2.1 3.3 ± 2.2 2.7 ± 2.0 0.086
 Procalcitonin, ng/ml 2.2 (0.2-19.8) 2.1 (0.9-9.0) 2.6 (0.1-41.3) 0.900
Nephrotoxic antibioticsb, n (%) 49 (32.9) 28 (44.4) 21 (24.4) 0.010
  1. Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± SD or median (25th percentile-75th percentile, interquartile range). Categorical variables were expressed as a number (%)
  2. AKI progression is defined as worsening of AKI stage
  3. a Defined as baseline eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73m2. Baseline eGFR was calculated by CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation according to at least three measurements of serum creatinine over a 6-month period before admission
  4. b Usage of vancomycin, aminoglycosides, or amphotericin before AKI diagnosis
  5. Abbreviation: AKI acute kidney injury, CKD chronic kidney disease, ICU intensive care unit, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, MODS Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome