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Table 1 Main demographic, clinical and functional data: mean ± SD [range]

From: Gait disorders in CKD patients: muscle wasting or cognitive impairment? A cross-sectional pilot study to investigate gait signatures in Stage 1–5 CKD patients

  CKD 1–2
(n = 8)
CKD 3
(n = 9)
CKD 4
(n = 9)
CKD 5
(n = 10)
CKD 5 (HD)
(n = 9)
Reference
value
General characteristics
 Gender (M / W) 6 / 2 6 / 3 8 / 1 4 / 6 4 / 5  
 Age (years) 60.4 ± 13.7 [40–83] 74.7 ± 9.1 [63–92] 77.1 ± 10.5 [53–85] 72.1 ± 4.4 [65–79] 75.9 ± 7.2 [62–86]  
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 2.4 [22–28.7] 27.4 ± 4.0 [22.2–33.7] 28.4 ± 3.7 [23.5–36.4] 28.9 ± 5.5 [16.7–34.3] 29.2 ± 3.3 [22.6–35.1] 18.5 – 24.9
 Schooling (years) 11.5 ± 3.0 [8–16] 9.6 ± 2.6 [5–14] 10.1 ± 4.0 [5–17] 6.9 ± 2.8 [3–13] 8.7 ± 3.3 [5–17]  
CKD specific parameters
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 68.8 ± 16.2 [56–108] 35.1 ± 5.9 [26–44] 22.1 ± 4.9 [16–29] 10.3 ± 1.7 [7–13] 9.4 ± 4.0 [4–17]  
 Time on HD (weeks) - - - - 81 ± 43 [13–131]  
Health status
 Physical health 52.1 ± 7.7 [36.5–60.9] 45.5 ± 10.1 [25.0–55.3] 49.7 ± 8.6 [34.2–62.4] 40.3 ± 7.8 [25.0–52.5] 37.6 ± 10.2 [19.9–50.6]  > 40
 Mental health 53.8 ± 7.0 [40.0–60.7] 52.7 ± 7.9 [38.1–62.0] 49.5 ± 12.9 [23.3–60.6] 54.4 ± 7.9 [37.9–65.1] 48.7 ± 8.0 [39.3–59.7]  > 40
 Autonomy 100 ± 0.0 [100–100] 99.4 ± 1.7 [95–100] 100 ± 0.0 [100–100] 98.5 ± 3.4 [90–100] 91.7 ± 8.3 [80–100]  ≥ 75
 Independence 21.0 ± 1.5 [18–22] 20.4 ± 1.4 [17–22] 18.4 ± 1.6 [16–21] 17.1 ± 3.2 [10–22] 12.8 ± 3.9 [7–19]  ≥ 17
 General fatigue 6.0 ± 1.9 [4–9] 10.4 ± 4.2 [4–16] 9.6 ± 3.8 [5–17] 11.5 ± 3.1 [7–15] 11.1 ± 4.4 [4–17]  < 10
 Pain 17.5 ± 27.1 [0–80] 17.8 ± 18.4 [0–50] 13.9 ± 18.2 [0–50] 51.0 ± 33.8 [0–100] 29.4 ± 24.8 [0–60]  < 40
 GDS-10 0.9 ± 0.6 [0–2] 1.1 ± 1.2 [0–4] 2.6 ± 2.9 [0–7] 2.6 ± 3.4 [0–10] 3.7 ± 1.7 [1–6]  ≤ 5
 Comorbidity severity Index 2.0 ± 0.1 [1.8–2.0] 2.5 ± 0.3 [2.3–3.0] 2.2 ± 0.3 [1.7–2.5] 2.0 ± 0.2 [1.6–2.2] 2.0 ± 0.3 [1.5–2.5]  ≤ 2
 Comorbidity index 0.0 ± 0.0 [0–0] 1.3 ± 0.5 [1, 2] 1.7 ± 1.1 [1–4] 1.6 ± 1.1 [1–4] 1.6 ± 0.5 [1, 2]  ≤ 2
Physical Performance
 SPPB 11.1 ± 1.1 [9–12] 11.6 ± 0.7 [10–12] 10.3 ± 1.3 [8–12] 9.4 ± 2.5 [4–12] 6.3 ± 2.4 [3–10]  > 6
 ETGUG (seconds) 18.7 ± 1.8 [16.3–21.4] 20.7 ± 3.7 [14.8–26.7] 22.6 ± 3.3 [16.9–26.3] 27.5 ± 9.6 [16.4–43.8] 36.7 ± 13.5 [20.5–55.6]  < 34
 POMA 27.0 ± 0.9 [26–28] 26.0 ± 2.3 [21–28] 25.6 ± 1.9 [23–28] 24.7 ± 2.8 [21–28] 21.7 ± 4.4 [16–28]  > 19
 Steps/daya 10,876 ± 3,419 [5,843–16,881]1 9,979 ± 5,432 [3,664–22,027] 6,251 ± 2,779 [3,576–11,463]1 7,144 ± 3,639 [2,839–15,862] 3,406 ± 3,257 [402–11,145]  > 5,000
 Handgrip (kg)b
 -Male
 -Female
47.7 ± 9.0 [38–58]
36.0 ± 4.2 [33–39]
41.7 ± 13.1 [21–58]
28.0 ± 0.0 [28–28]
29.0 ± 7.6 [20–44]
24.0 ± 0.0 [24–24]
28.3 ± 9.6 [19–40]
10.4 ± 3.3 [8–16]
21.3 ± 4.3 [15–25]
12.4 ± 3.9 [8–18]
 ≥ 27
 ≥ 16
Hip flexion (kg)c
-Male
-Female
23.0 ± 6.9 [14.0–31.3]
16.1 ± 0.9 [15.4–16.7]
23.2 ± 7.6 [18.8–36.7]
11.9 ± 1.5 [10.1–12.9]
19.6 ± 3.1 [14.6–23.2]
12.0 ± 0.0 [12.0–12.0]
18.9 ± 13.5 [9.3–42.4]
14.3 ± 2.1 [11.4–17.4]
12 ± 3.6 [8.2–15.3]
11.4 ± 3.4 [7–15.3]
 > 11
 > 10
Cognitive Status
 MMSE 28.9 ± 1.1 [27–30] 28.3 ± 0.7 [27–29] 26.7 ± 2.3 [23–29] 26.2 ± 4.1 [16–29] 25.9 ± 1.6 [24–28]  > 24
 FABd 3.3 ± 0.7 [2–4] 2.9 ± 1.1 [1–4] 0.7 ± 1.1 [0–3] 1.9 ± 1.5 [0–4] 1.3 ± 1.5 [0–4]  ≥ 1
 TMT_Ad 3.8 ± 0.7 [2–4] 3.3 ± 1.1 [1–4] 2.2 ± 1.8 [0–4] 2.2 ± 1.9 [0–4] 2.7 ± 1.6 [0–4]1  ≥ 1
 TMT_Bd 3.6 ± 0.7 [2–4] 2.7 ± 1.7 [0–4] 2.8 ± 1.9 [0–4] 2.3 ± 2.1 [0–4]1 1.7 ± 2.0 [0–4]1  ≥ 1
Haematology parameters
 Calcium (mmol/L) 2.4 ± 0.1 [2.3–2.5]2 2.3 ± 0.1 [2.2–2.4]1 2.3 ± 0.2 [2.0–2.5]1 2.3 ± 0.2 [2.0–2.5] 2.2 ± 0.1 [2.0–2.4] 2.15 – 2.55
 Phosphates (mmol/L) 1.0 ± 0.2 [0.8–1.2]2 1.1 ± 0.1 [0.9–1.3]1 1.2 ± 0.2 [0.9–1.4]1 1.6 ± 0.2 [1.3–1.8] 1.7 ± 0.5 [1.0–2.9] 0.81 – 1.45
 Haemoglobin (g/L) 142.3 ± 9.5 [124–154]1 133.8 ± 13.6 [115–156] 130.0 ± 20.1 [99–171]1 101.5 ± 10.5 [84–119] 103.8 ± 11.2 [87–122] 140 – 180
 Haematocrit (L/L) 0.44 ± 0.03 [0.38–0.48]1 0.41 ± 0.05 [0.36–0.50] 0.40 ± 0.07 [0.29–0.53]1 0.31 ± 0.04 [0.26–0.38] 0.31 ± 0.04 [0.26–0.39] 0.45 – 0.55
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, ETGUG Expanded Timed Get up and Go Test, POMA Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, FAB Frontal Assessment Battery, TMT Trail Making Test. aAmount of steps per/day were recorded with a pedometer, the participants had to wear for a week (Step Watch™, Modus, Washington DC, USA). bHandgrip was tested using a Jamar® hydraulic hand dynamometer (Performance Health International LTD, Sutton-in-Ashfiled, UK). cHip flexion was tested using a manual muscle tester (Nicholas MMT, Model 01,160, Lafayette Instrument, Lafayette, USA). dFor FAB and TMT, the Equivalent Score was calculated adjusting the tests score for age and schooling. 1The value of 1 patient is missing. 2The values of 2 patients are missing