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Table 2 Gait characteristics: mean ± SD [range]

From: Gait disorders in CKD patients: muscle wasting or cognitive impairment? A cross-sectional pilot study to investigate gait signatures in Stage 1–5 CKD patients

  CKD 1–2
(n = 8)
CKD 3
(n = 9)
CKD 4
(n = 9)
CKD 5
(n = 10)
CKD 5 (HD)
(n = 9)
Spatio-temporal parameters
 Gait speed (m/s) 1.31 ± 0.14 [1.09–1.55] 1.22 ± 0.20 [0.86–1.53] 1.12 ± 0.15 [0.93–1.36] 1.03 ± 0.36 [0.56–1.54] 0.86 ± 0.25 [0.53–1.23]
 Cadence (steps/min) 107.4 ± 9.0 [95–120] 113.7 ± 10.5 [103–136] 110.0 ± 6.0 [98–118] 110.8 ± 14.6 [84–130] 101.6 ± 13.7 [79–126]
 Stride time (s) 1.14 ± 0.09 [1.03–1.27] 1.08 ± 0.08 [0.95–1.18] 1.10 ± 0.06 [1.02–1.22] 1.12 ± 0.16 [0.95–1.46] 1.21 ± 0.17 [0.96–1.55]
 Stride length (m) 1.37 ± 0.26 [1.11–1.78] 1.18 ± 0.16 [0.96–1.42] 1.18 ± 0.25 [0.67–1.56] 1.08 ± 0.32 [0.74–1.59] 1.05 ± 0.22 [0.81–1.44]
 Step time (s) 0.57 ± 0.04 [0.52–0.63] 0.54 ± 0.04 [0.48–0.59] 0.55 ± 0.03 [0.51–0.61] 0.56 ± 0.08 [0.47–0.73] 0.61 ± 0.08 [0.48–0.77]
 Step length (m) 0.69 ± 0.13 [0.56–0.89] 0.59 ± 0.08 [0.48–0.71] 0.59 ± 0.13 [0.33–0.78] 0.54 ± 0.16 [0.37–0.79] 0.52 ± 0.11 [0.4–0.72]
Variability
 CV Stride time 3.0 ± 1.5 [1.2–5.5] 4.1 ± 3.4 [1.3–10.7] 2.8 ± 1.6 [0.7–6.1] 4.9 ± 2.8 [1.4–10.7] 4.4 ± 1.5 [1.8–6.9]
 CV Stride length 3.4 ± 1.0 [1.4–5.2] 5.4 ± 3.4 [2.6–13.1] 4.9 ± 2.8 [2.3–10.4] 7.5 ± 4.1 [3.0–15.4] 4.5 ± 2.0 [1.6–8.2]
 CV Step time 9.0 ± 7.4 [2.3–18.7] 7.6 ± 4.8 [2.1–16.9] 7.4 ± 3.7 [2.2–12.7] 10.2 ± 4.3 [3.3–16.8] 7.9 ± 2.8 [2.6–12.0]
 CV Step length 6.5 ± 3.1 [4.0–13.1] 7.3 ± 4.0 [4.5–16.2] 8.3 ± 3.4 [4.8–15.7] 11.1 ± 5.3 [3.9–19.9] 11.3 ± 8.0 [2.7–30.4]
 Gait regularity 0.96 ± 0.03 [0.91–0.99] 0.95 ± 0.04 [0.87–1.00] 0.90 ± 0.16 [0.47–0.98] 0.92 ± 0.07 [0.78–0.99] 0.83 ± 0.13 [0.53–0.95]
Dual-task cost of gait
 Gait speed (%) 11.8 ± 14.2 [2–45] 11.6 ± 10.3 [-4–28] 14.6 ± 9.2 [2–29] 15.8 ± 10.2 [-1–35] 19.3 ± 10.7 [8–37]
 Cadence (%) 7.9 ± 11.6 [-1–35] 6.8 ± 7.4 [-1–21] 6.4 ± 5.7 [-2–16] 7.8 ± 4.8 [-1–14] 10.0 ± 8.4 [-1–25]
 Stride time (%) 11.8 ± 22.6 [-1–67] 7.4 ± 7.9 [-2–21] 8.0 ± 6.8 [-2–19] 8.9 ± 5.6 [-1–17] 12.3 ± 11.3 [0–34]
 Stride length (%) -1.8 ± 4.5 [-7–6] 2.4 ± 6.6 [-5–15] 3.1 ± 8.8 [-11–17] -1.2 ± 9.9 [-14–18] 4.7 ± 8.2 [-6–23]
  1. CV Coefficient of variation