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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analysis to determine risk factors of postoperative AKI after abdominal surgery

From: Risk factors for acute kidney injury after major abdominal surgery in the elderly aged 75 years and above

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) P Adjusted OR (95% CI) P
Male 0.444 (0.211–0.934) 0.032   
Ages 1.129 (1.048–1.216) 0.001 1.112 (1.020–1.212) 0.016
Body mass index 0.969 (0.878–1.070) 0.537   
Hypertension 0.798 (0.392–1.627) 0.535   
Diabetes mellitus 0.535 (0.582–2.837) 0.535   
Ischemic heart diseases 1.120 (0.493–2.547) 0.787   
Congestive heart diseases 1.871 (0.415–8.428) 0.734   
Cerebrovascular diseases 0.858 (0.323–2.281) 0.759   
COPD 3.419 (0.718–16.285) 0.311   
Solid malignancy 0.711 (0.338–1.495) 0.366   
Serum hemoglobin 0.988 (0.969–1.006) 0.193   
Serum albumin 0.863 (0.802–0.929)  < 0.001 0.900 (0.829–0.977) 0.012
Alanine aminotransferase 1.004 (1.001–1.007) 0.024   
Aspartate aminotransferase 1.003 (1.000–1.005) 0.037   
Baseline eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) < 60 6.544 (3.137–13.649)  < 0.001 3.401 (1.479–7.820) 0.004
ASA score 3.063 (1.584–5.923) 0.001   
Charlson score 1.203 (1.035–1.399) 0.071   
RCRI score 1.895 (1.204–2.981) 0.005   
Non-renal RCRI score 1.654 (1.034–2.645) 0.033   
Surgical approach(Laparoscopic) 0.623 (0.294–1.319) 0.213   
Intraoperative characteristics
 Duration of anesthesia 1.000 (0.997–1.003) 0.850   
 Operative time 1.000 (0.996–1.003) 0.933   
 IOH 4.141 (2.023–8.477)  < 0.001 3.509 (1.553–7.929) 0.003
 Amount of crystalloids use 1.000 (0.999–1.001) 0.476   
 Blood loss 0.999 (0.995–1.002) 0.465   
 Vasoactive drug use 0.783 (0.330–1.857) 0.578   
 Usage of nephrotoxic drugs
  Hydroxyethyl starch 0.292 (0.111–0.768) 0.008   
  NSAID 0.413 (0.097–1.761) 0.333   
  Hydroxyethyl starch + NSAID 2.896 (1.375–6.098) 0.004 3.596 (1.559–8.292) 0.003
  Hydroxyethyl starch + furosemide 11.875 (3.648–38.654)  < 0.001 5.724 (1.476–22.199) 0.012
  1. COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, RCRI Revised Cardiac Risk Index, IOH intraoperative occurrence of hypotension, NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval