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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. To investigate if remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can offer any renoprotective value by counteracting the deleterious effect of partial nephrectomy (PN) under warm ischemia on renal function.

    Authors: Tuna Till Mut, Ömer Acar, Ayse Armutlu, Said Incir, Annemarie Uhlig, Lale A. Ertuglu, Melis Özel, Ali Cihan Taskin, Dilek Ertoy Baydar, Mehmet Kanbay and Tarık Esen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:266

    Content type: Research article

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  2. CKD is common in heart failure (HF) and associated with morbidity and mortality, yet life-prolonging medications such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors (RAASi) are underused due to risk of hyperkalae...

    Authors: Daniel Murphy, Irina Chis Ster, Juan-Carlos Kaski, Lisa Anderson and Debasish Banerjee

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:254

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Diffusion-weighted (DW) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging are classical sequences of functional MR, but the exploration in non-transplanted kidney disease is limited. Objects: ...

    Authors: Tao Su, Xuedong Yang, Rui Wang, Li Yang and Xiaoying Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:237

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway is a significant contributor to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Carnosine is a dipeptide that can inhibit TGF-β synthesis. We tested ...

    Authors: Narongrit Siriwattanasit, Bancha Satirapoj and Ouppatham Supasyndh

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:236

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Common subtypes seen in Chinese patients with membranous nephropathy (MN) include idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) and hepatitis B virus-related membranous nephropathy (HBV-MN). However, the morphologic...

    Authors: Tianqi Tu, Xueling Wei, Yue Yang, Nianrong Zhang, Wei Li, Xiaowen Tu and Wenge Li

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:231

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) multimers are cleaved into smaller and less coagulant forms by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between VWF and ADAMTS13 and mo...

    Authors: Gurbey Ocak, Mark Roest, Marianne C. Verhaar, Maarten B. Rookmaaker, Peter J. Blankestijn, Willem Jan W. Bos, Rob Fijnheer, Nathalie C. Péquériaux and Friedo W. Dekker

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:222

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (Pr-AKI) is associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. There are few studies focusing on Pr-AKI at high altitude in the literature.

    Authors: Xin Li, Xiaojing Wu, Muyin Zhang, Lili Xu, Guohui Li, Yumei Wen and Weiming Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:215

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing Coronary arteriography (CAG)/percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA...

    Authors: H. Zhang, H. Fu, X. Fu, J. Zhang, P. Zhang, S. Yang, Z. Zeng, N. Fu and Z. Guo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:206

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Previous studies have demonstrated that excretion of urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) from different nephron segments differs between kidney stone formers and non-stone formers (NSFs), and could reflect pa...

    Authors: Jiqing Zhang, Sanjay Kumar, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Loren P. Herrera Hernandez, Stanley Wang, Elena M. Wilson and John C. Lieske

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:204

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Accidental fall risk is high in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Falls are associated with fatal injury, comorbidities, and mortality. Risk assessment should be a primary component of fall prevent...

    Authors: Asuka Sai, Kentaro Tanaka, Yasushi Ohashi, Akifumi Kushiyama, Yoshihide Tanaka, Shuta Motonishi, Ken Sakai, Shigeko Hara and Takashi Ozawa

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:191

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype has been proposed to be related to the occurrence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The ageing trend of the Chinese population continues to intens...

    Authors: Ruping Chen, Guangshan Sun, Rui Liu, Ao Sun, Yujie Cao, Xiaojie Zhou and Sha Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:182

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important and common cause of acute renal failure. There are no generally accepted guidelines for the treatment of AIN, due to the lack of prospective randomized trials...

    Authors: Frank H. Mose, Henrik Birn, Nikolai Hoffmann-Petersen and Jesper N. Bech

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:161

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been suggested as a beneficial supplement in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, but the results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are controversial. We conducted a systematic...

    Authors: Siavash Fazelian, Fatemeh Moradi, Shahram Agah, Akramsadat Hoseini, Hafez Heydari, Mojgan Morvaridzadeh, Amirhosein Omidi, Ana Beatriz Pizarro, Atie Ghafouri and Javad Heshmati

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:160

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Considering that current peritoneal dialysis has its own shortcomings, In this study, the Seldinger technique was modified to explore the relationship between different catheter placement methods of peritoneal...

    Authors: Yibo Ma, Shuiqing Liu, Min Yang, Yun Zou, Dong Xue, Yanping Liu, Yufeng Wang, Xiao Xie and Hui Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:151

    Content type: Research article

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  15. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus associated with high mortality rates. The use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) has been recognised as a management option for severe COVID-19 (NHS, Spe...

    Authors: Lauren Floyd, Madelena Stauss, Joshua Storrar, Parthvi Vanalia, Anna France and Ajay Dhaygude

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:144

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:171

  16. Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a serious complication following cardiac surgery. Adverse outcome after cardiac surgery has been observed in the presence of elevated levels of soluble urokinase-type plasm...

    Authors: Sebastian Roed Rasmussen, Rikke Vibeke Nielsen, Rasmus Møgelvang, Sisse Rye Ostrowski and Hanne Berg Ravn

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:120

    Content type: Research article

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  17. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the final and permanent stage of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Hemodialysis (HD) is the most common treatment for CKD. To have desirable therapeutic outcomes, patients have to...

    Authors: Mansour Arad, Rasoul Goli, Naser Parizad, Davoud Vahabzadeh and Rahim Baghaei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:119

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Intravenous (IV) iron in heart failure leads to improvement in exercise capacity and improvement in quality-of-life measurements; h...

    Authors: S. Bhandari, V. Allgar, A. Lamplugh, I. Macdougall and P. A. Kalra

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:115

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is predicted to rise over the next few decades. In resource-limited settings access to central laboratory services is limited. Point-of-care (POC) urine dipstick ...

    Authors: Sean D. Currin, Mwawi S. Gondwe, Nokthula B. Mayindi, Shingirai Chipungu, Bongekile L. Khoza, Stephen Tollman, June Fabian and Jaya A. George

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:103

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common manifestation among patients critically ill with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Coronavirus 2019) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of...

    Authors: R. Lowe, M. Ferrari, M. Nasim-Mohi, A. Jackson, R. Beecham, K. Veighey, R. Cusack, D. Richardson, MPW Grocott, DZH Levett and A. Dushianthan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:92

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Chronic kidney disease as well as acute kidney injury are associated with adverse outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). However, little is known about the prognostic implications of an ...

    Authors: Dominik Kylies, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Florian Fulisch, Hatim Seoudy, Christian Kuhn, Lars Philipp Kihm, Thomas Pühler, Georg Lutter, Astrid Dempfle, Norbert Frey, Thorsten Feldkamp and Derk Frank

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:77

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Higher plasma magnesium concentrations are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The importance of plasma magnesium concentration for vascular calcificat...

    Authors: Anique D. ter Braake, Larissa P. Govers, Mieke J. Peeters, Arjan D. van Zuilen, Jack F. M. Wetzels, Peter J. Blankenstijn, Joost G. J. Hoenderop, Jeroen H. F. de Baaij and Jan A. J. G. van den Brand

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:71

    Content type: Research article

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  23. It is unclear whether faster progression of atherosclerosis explains the higher risk of cardiovascular events in CKD. The objectives of this study were to 1. Characterize the associations of CKD with presence ...

    Authors: Srinivasan Beddhu, Robert E. Boucher, Jie Sun, Niranjan Balu, Michel Chonchol, Sankar Navaneethan, Glenn M. Chertow, Raymond Townsend, William Haley, Alfred K. Cheung, Molly B. Conroy, Dominic S. Raj, Dongxiang Xu, Thomas George, Reem Yunis, Guo Wei…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:69

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Anemia is one of the common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is no systematic investigation on the prevalence of anemia in CKD patients and its relationship with the ...

    Authors: Yan Shen, Jinwei Wang, Jing Yuan, Li Yang, Fangfang Yu, Xiaolei Wang, Ming-Hui Zhao, Luxia Zhang and Yan Zha

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:64

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Acute kidney injury is common in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU). It is associated with poor patient outcomes and high healthcare resource usage. This study’s primary objective is to help identify which...

    Authors: Wen En Joseph Wong, Siew Pang Chan, Juin Keith Yong, Yen Yu Sherlyn Tham, Jie Rui Gerald Lim, Ming Ann Sim, Chai Rick Soh, Lian Kah Ti and Tsong Huey Sophia Chew

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:63

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Recent trials have suggested use of balanced crystalloids may decrease the incidence of major adverse kidney events compared to saline in critically ill adults. The effect of crystalloid composition on biomark...

    Authors: Blake E. Funke, Karen E. Jackson, Wesley H. Self, Sean P. Collins, Christina T. Saunders, Li Wang, Jeffrey D. Blume, Nancy Wickersham, Ryan M. Brown, Jonathan D. Casey, Gordon R. Bernard, Todd W. Rice, Edward D. Siew and Matthew W. Semler

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:54

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Cardiac biomarkers Troponin T (TnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and abdominal aortic calcification score (AAC) are associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients wit...

    Authors: Roosa Lankinen, Markus Hakamäki, Kaj Metsärinne, Niina Koivuviita, Jussi P. Pärkkä, Maria Saarenhovi, Tapio Hellman and Mikko J. Järvisalo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:50

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder, with renal manifestations like angiomyolipoma (AML) occurring in 70–80% of patients. AML usually cause more complications in TCS patients than in non-TSC...

    Authors: Kathrin Bausch, Christian Wetterauer, Julian Diethelm, Jan Ebbing, Daniel T. Boll, Patricia Dill, Cyrill A. Rentsch and Hans-H. Seifert

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:47

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have been reported to be associated with infectious mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Peritonitis is the most common and fatal infectious complication, resu...

    Authors: Yuqi Yang, Jingjing Da, Yi Jiang, Jing Yuan and Yan Zha

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:44

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is identified as mesangial IgA deposition and is usually accompanied by other immunofluorescence deposits. The impact of immunofluorescent features in IgAN patients, however...

    Authors: Lingzhi Wu, Di Liu, Ming Xia, Guochun Chen, Yu Liu, Xuejing Zhu and Hong Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:43

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The study aim was to establish if substitution of citrate with rt-PA for catheter lock once weekly can reduce the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI) or improve patency of tunneled h...

    Authors: Pavlina Richtrova, Jan Mares, Lukas Kielberger, Jan Klaboch, Jaromir Eiselt and Tomas Reischig

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:41

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The incidence and prevalence of older patients with kidney failure who are dependent on dialysis is increasing. However, observational studies showed limited or no benefit of dialysis on mortality in subgroups...

    Authors: Mathijs van Oevelen, Alferso C. Abrahams, Willem Jan W. Bos, Mariëlle H. Emmelot-Vonk, Simon P. Mooijaart, Merel van Diepen, Brigit C. van Jaarsveld, Anita van Eck van der Sluijs, Carlijn G. N. Voorend and Marjolijn van Buren

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:39

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:113

  33. The extent to which patients with End-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a higher risk of COVID-19-related death is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the ESRD patients at increased...

    Authors: Hadith Rastad, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Gita Shafiee, Anis Safari, Ehsan Shahrestanaki, Zeinab Khodaparast, Neda Shafiabadi Hassani, Mohammad Rezaei, Morteza Nazari, Akram Zakani, Mohammad Mahdi Niksima, Mehdi Azimzadeh, Fatemeh Karimi, Ramin Tajbakhsh and Mostafa Qorbani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:33

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Weight gain (mainly gain of fat mass) occurs quickly after successful kidney transplantation and is associated with metabolic complications (alterations of glycaemic control, hyperlipidaemia). Determinants of ...

    Authors: Karine Moreau, Aurélie Desseix, Christine Germain, Pierre Merville, Lionel Couzi, Rodolphe Thiébaut and Philippe Chauveau

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:31

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:61

  35. Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics and determinant...

    Authors: Kenan Turgutalp, Savas Ozturk, Mustafa Arici, Necmi Eren, Numan Gorgulu, Mahmut Islam, Sami Uzun, Tamer Sakaci, Zeki Aydin, Erkan Sengul, Bulent Demirelli, Yavuz Ayar, Mehmet Riza Altiparmak, Savas Sipahi, Ilay Berke Mentes, Tuba Elif Ozler…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:29

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Roxadustat has been shown effective in treating patients with anemia due to chronic kidney disease. However, its long-term effect on clinical outcomes and socioeconomic burden and safety remains unclear.

    Authors: Yaling Zhang, Song Ren, Hen Xue, Amanda Y Wang, Yang Zou, Yanrong Cai, Jingdong He, Xiaoling Yuan, Feifei Jiang, Jinxi Wei, Dongmei Yang, Dong He, Shide Hu, Min Lei, Fei Deng, Jin Chen…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:28

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) mesangial deposition in pediatric minimal change disease (MCD) has been reported to be associated with steroid dependence and poor renal outcomes. However, the evidence linking the impac...

    Authors: Cheng-Wen Yang, Fan-Yu Chen, Fu-Pang Chang, Yang Ho, Bo-Sheng Wu, An-Hang Yang, Der-Cherng Tarng and Chih-Yu Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:25

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Nephropathy associated metabolic disorder induces high incidence of fragility fracture in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. As the risk factors and prognosis of fragility fracture in ESRD patients are u...

    Authors: Lihua Xie, Xuantao Hu, Wenzhao Li and Zhengxiao Ouyang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:23

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx is an early indicator of vascular damage and a potential marker of endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to assess the relationship between markers of glycocalyx damage...

    Authors: Hui Liew, Matthew A. Roberts, Alun Pope and Lawrence P. McMahon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:21

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Although patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently have instability in mean arterial pressure (MAP), no consensus exists on the target value of...

    Authors: Yaerim Kim, Donghwan Yun, Soie Kwon, Kyubok Jin, Seungyeup Han, Dong Ki Kim, Kook-Hwan Oh, Kwon Wook Joo, Yon Su Kim, Sejoong Kim and Seung Seok Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:20

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Serum and tissue-based tests using phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain containing 7A (THSD7A) are established immune biomarkers for the diagnosis of primary membranous nephropa...

    Authors: Bingileki F Lwezaula, Oluwatoyin I Ameh, Udeme E Ekrikpo, Francois CJ Botha, Ugochi S Okpechi-Samuel, Nicola Wearne, Pierre Ronco, Aminu K Bello and Ikechi G. Okpechi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:15

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The relationship between malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome (MIAS) and self-management ability has not been previously revealed even though both play an important role in the management of peri...

    Authors: Zehui Huang, Junyan Fang, Ahui Song, Yan Tong, Hai Deng, Shan Wei, Ouyang Ji, Chun Hu, Pu Li, Chunli Zhang and Yingli Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:13

    Content type: Research article

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  43. We investigated whether implementation of the end-stage renal disease prospective payment system (ESRD PPS) was associated with changes in thrombolytic therapy use and other aspects of catheter management in h...

    Authors: Nicholas S. Roetker, Haifeng Guo, Marquita R. Decker-Palmer, Yi Peng and James B. Wetmore

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:8

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:93

  44. Vascular calcification is a prominent feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. A recent report suggests that angiotensin II is protective to vascular calcification. Therefore, we investig...

    Authors: Kaori Takaori, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Masafumi Yamato and Takahito Ito

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:7

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) triggered by pregnancy is a rare disease caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway that occurs in approximately 1 in 25,000 pregnancies. The 311 ph...

    Authors: Anja Gäckler, Ulf Schönermarck, Vladimir Dobronravov, Gaetano La Manna, Andrew Denker, Peng Liu, Maria Vinogradova, Sung-Soo Yoon and Manuel Praga

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:5

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:49

  46. Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) is a rare hereditary disease caused by a variety of genetic mutations. Carriers of a mutation in the responsible genes are at risk of reaching end-s...

    Authors: Tamehito Onoe, Satoshi Hara, Kazunori Yamada, Takeshi Zoshima, Ichiro Mizushima, Kiyoaki Ito, Takayasu Mori, Shoichiro Daimon, Hiroaki Muramoto, Maki Shimizu, Akira Iguchi, Akihiro Kuma, Yoshifumi Ubara, Michihiro Mitobe, Hiroaki Tsuruta, Nao Kishimoto…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:1

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Climate change is a significant threat to the health of the Ghanaian people. Evidence abounds in Ghana that temperatures in all the ecological zones are rising, whereas rainfall levels have been generally redu...

    Authors: Richard Kobina Dadzie Ephraim, Christopher Amey Asamoah, Albert Abaka-Yawson, Precious Kwablah Kwadzokpui and Samuel Adusei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:542

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Blood pressure is an important and modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides valuable prognostic information in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet...

    Authors: Ruo-wei Wen, Xiao-qiu Chen, Ye Zhu, Jian-ting Ke, Yi Du, Cheng Wang and Tan-qi Lou

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:541

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in the intensive care unit (ICU). Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), known as [TIMP-2] x [IGFB...

    Authors: Lan Jia, Xiaohua Sheng, Anna Zamperetti, Yun Xie, Valentina Corradi, Shikha Chandel, Massimo De Cal, Diego Pomarè Montin, Carlotta Caprara and Claudio Ronco

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:540

    Content type: Research article

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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