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Clinical Research

Section edited by Amir Kazory

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is effective in treating membranous nephropathy (MN); however relapses are frequent after treatment cessation. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to examine whether the addition of myc...

    Authors: Aikaterini Nikolopoulou, Marie Condon, Tabitha Turner-Stokes, H. Terence Cook, Neill Duncan, Jack W. Galliford, Jeremy B. Levy, Liz Lightstone, Charles D. Pusey, Candice Roufosse, Thomas D. Cairns and Megan E. Griffith

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:352

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, and renal involvement is frequently present in MPA. MPA patients with renal involvement may have a worse prognosis. In this study, we aimed to e...

    Authors: Jia Shi, Qing Shen, Xue-Mei Chen and Xiao-Gang Du

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:339

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Sleep disturbance is common among chronic haemodialysis patients, which leads to poor quality of life, in addition to increased instances of morbidity and mortality. Hypervolemia has been linked to sleep probl...

    Authors: Sethanant Sethakarun, Sutachard Bijaphala, Chagriya Kitiyakara, Sarinya Boongird, Pariya Phanachet, Sirimon Reutrakul, Kwanchai Pirojsakul and Arkom Nongnuch

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:211

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Thrombospondin type 1 domain containing 7A (THSD7A) was recently identified target autoantigen in membranous nephropathy (MN). However, patients with positive THSD7A expression were prone to have malignancies....

    Authors: Li Xian, Dandan Dong, Jiamei Luo, Ling Zhuo, Ke Li, Ping Zhang, Wei Wang, Ying Xu, Gang Xu, Li Wang and Guisen Li

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:332

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Focal segmental lesions (FSLs) are not uncommon in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The reported percentage of IMN patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions varies widely between ...

    Authors: Hong-Guang He, Chao-Qing Wu, Kun Ye, Chun Zeng, Yi-Yun Huang, Shu-Wen Luo, Wu Yin, Qiu-Rong Ye and Xiao-Mei Peng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:328

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) can be a sig...

    Authors: Mats C. H. Lassen, Atif N. Qasim, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Jacob L. T. Reeh, Terry Watnick, Stephen L. Seliger, Huanwen Chen, Mariem A. Sawan, Daniel Nguyen, Yongfang Li, Susie N. Hong and Meyeon Park

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:324

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under hemodialysis (HD) are at greater risks of infectious spondylitis (IS), but there is no reliable predictor that facilitate early detection of this relatively r...

    Authors: Kun-Lin Lu, Wen-Hung Huang, Yueh-An Lu, Chan-Yu Lin, Hsin-Hsu Wu, Ching-Wei Hsu, Cheng-Hao Weng, Chao-Yi Wu, I-Wen Wu, Meng-Yu Wu, Tzung-Hai Yen and Huang-Yu Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:323

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are the main cause of death in long-term hemodialysis (HD) patients. Macrophage colony- stimulating factor (M-CSF) is actively involved in the formation of atherosclerosis a...

    Authors: Xuan Deng, Qian Yang, Yuxi Wang, Yi Yang, Guangchang Pei, Han Zhu, Jianliang Wu, Meng Wang, Zhi Zhao, Huzi Xu, Cheng Zhou, Yi Guo, Ying Yao, Zhiguo Zhang, Wenhui Liao and Rui Zeng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:321

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  9. Content type: Research article

    No study has specifically investigated the duration of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in patients who experienced acute kidney injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. How...

    Authors: George Kuo, Shao-Wei Chen, Pei-Chun Fan, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, An-Hsun Chou, Cheng-Chia Lee, Pao-Hsien Chu, Feng-Chun Tsai, Ya-Chung Tian and Chih-Hsiang Chang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:318

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  10. Content type: Research article

    It is known that one of the leading causes of morbidity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the anemic syndrome. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of anemia are multiple, erythropoietin deficiency appears as t...

    Authors: Ailema González-Ortiz, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Armando Vázquez-Rangel, Olynka Vega-Vega and Ángeles Espinosa-Cuevas

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:316

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Performing a kidney biopsy is necessary to accurately diagnose diseases such as glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial nephritis, among other such conditions. These conditions predispose patients to chronic...

    Authors: Henrique Pinheiro Konigsfeld, Tatiana Garcia Viana, Suzy Cristine Pereira, Thais Oliveira Claizoni Dos Santos, Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn, Agostinho Tavares and Marcelino de Souza Durão Junior

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:315

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Complement activation plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of primary membranous nephropathy (pMN). C5b-9, C3c, MBL, and factor B have been documented in the subepithelial immune deposits. However, the...

    Authors: Mu-fan Zhang, Jing Huang, Yi-miao Zhang, Zhen Qu, Xin Wang, Fang Wang, Li-qiang Meng, Xu-yang Cheng, Zhao Cui, Gang Liu and Ming-hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:313

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Proteinuria is known to be associated with both kidney function deterioration and cardiovascular diseases. While proteinuria estimation from 24-h urine samples has traditionally been considered as the standard...

    Authors: Seiji Kobayashi, Hoichi Amano, Hiroyuki Terawaki, Makoto Ogura, Yoshindo Kawaguchi and Takashi Yokoo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:306

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  14. Content type: Research article

    New non-invasive biomarkers are demanded to identify renal damage in various autoimmune-associated kidney diseases. Glomerular podocyte damage mediated by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) plays an important ...

    Authors: Jian Lu, Ze Bo Hu, Pei Pei Chen, Chen Chen Lu, Jia Xiu Zhang, Xue Qi Li, Ben Yin Yuan, Si Jia Huang and Kun Ling Ma

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:303

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Impaired T cell immune function exists in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Dialysis treatment may lead to changes in T cell subsets. In the present study, we aimed to identify alterations of T cell phe...

    Authors: Jiao Xiaoyan, Chen Rongyi, Cao Xuesen, Zou Jianzhou, Ji Jun, Ding Xiaoqiang and Yu Xiaofang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:301

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  16. Content type: Research article

    A chronic inflammatory state is a prominent feature in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in ...

    Authors: Jia-Hwa Yang, Wei-Teing Chen, Meng-Chang Lee, Wen-Hui Fang, Yu-Juei Hsu, Chin-Lin, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Hsueh-Lu Chang, Chien-Fu Chen, Min-Yu Tu, Chien-Wei Kuo, Yuan-Hau Lin, Po-Jen Hsiao and Sui-Lung Su

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:300

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a well-known immunomodulator, has recently been found to be a promising and safe anti-proteinuric agent for treating IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safet...

    Authors: Ya-zi Yang, Pei Chen, Li-Jun Liu, Qing-Qing Cai, Su-Fang Shi, Yu-Qing Chen, Ji-Cheng Lv and Hong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:297

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Microparticles (MPs) are biomarkers and mediators of disease through their expression of surface receptors, reflecting activation or stress in their parent cells. Endothelial markers, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, are im...

    Authors: Kristina Lundwall, Josefin Mörtberg, Fariborz Mobarrez, Stefan H. Jacobson, Gun Jörneskog and Jonas Spaak

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:290

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Many patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) need dialysis at disease onset due to severe kidney injury. Determining whether they can become dialysis independent i...

    Authors: Peng-cheng Xu, Tong Chen, Si-jing Wu, Xia Yang, Shan Gao, Shui-yi Hu, Li Wei and Tie-kun Yan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:287

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is common in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, but is frequently underdiagnosed. The risk factors for PAD are well known within the general population, bu...

    Authors: Radislav R. Ašćerić, Nada B. Dimković, Goran Ž. Trajković, Biljana S. Ristić, Aleksandar N. Janković, Petar S. Durić and Nenad S. Ilijevski

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:281

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Scleroderma Renal Crisis (SRC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While prednisone is strongly associated with SRC, there are no previous large cohort studies that have evaluated ace inhib...

    Authors: S. M. Gordon, J. B. Hughes, R. Nee, R. S. Stitt, W. T. Bailey, D. J. Little, J. D. Edison and S. W. Olson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:279

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Metformin has shown promising results regarding cystogenesis inhibition in preclinical studies with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) models. We designed a prospective, preliminary, single-a...

    Authors: Bogdan Marian Sorohan, Gener Ismail, Andreea Andronesi, Georgia Micu, Bogdan Obrișcă, Roxana Jurubiță, Ioanel Sinescu and Cătălin Baston

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:276

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects approximately 13% of patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, and is a common and important clinical sign of perioperative injury. The aim of our analysis was to identify ...

    Authors: Ivana Dedinská, Peter Mikolajčík, Patra Skálová, Marián Mokáň and Ľudovít Laca

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:272

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The product of the concentrations of urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (urinary [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP-7]) has been suggested as biomarker for early d...

    Authors: Judith Schiefer, Paul Lichtenegger, Gabriela A. Berlakovich, Walter Plöchl, Claus G. Krenn, David M. Baron, Joanna Baron-Stefaniak and Peter Faybik

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:269

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Current paradigms of detecting acute kidney injury (AKI) are insensitive and non-specific. Klotho is a pleiotropic protein that is predominantly expressed in renal tubules. In this study, we evaluated the diag...

    Authors: Yingying Qian, Lin Che, Yucheng Yan, Renhua Lu, Mingli Zhu, Song Xue, Zhaohui Ni and Leyi Gu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:268

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  26. Content type: Research article

    CKD has been recognized as risk factors for 25(OH) D deficiency, and Low levels of 25(OH) D have been suggested to be a trigger factor of decreased level of Hb. However, there is lack of information about the ...

    Authors: Shiv Kumar Sah and Laxman Prasad Adhikary

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:267

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Chronic Kidney Disease - Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) is a significant cause of morbidity among haemodialysis patients and is associated with pathological changes in phosphate, calcium and parathyroid h...

    Authors: Zhipeng Zhan, Brendan Smyth, Nigel D. Toussaint, Nicholas A. Gray, Li Zuo, Janak R. de Zoysa, Christopher T. Chan, Chenggang Jin, Anish Scaria, Carmel M. Hawley, Vlado Perkovic, Meg J. Jardine and Ling Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:258

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Factors associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. We aim to explore and quantify the associated factors of LVSD among PD patients.

    Authors: Teeranan Angkananard, Jirayut Janma, Thanapath Wannasiri, Piyathida Sangthong and Siribha Changsirikulchai

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:257

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  29. Content type: Research article

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the commonest global cause of glomerulonephritis. Extent of fibrosis, tubular atrophy and glomerulosclerosis predict renal function decline. Extent of renal fibrosis is assessed with ...

    Authors: M. P. Graham-Brown, A. Singh, J. Wormleighton, N. J. Brunskill, G. P. McCann, J. Barratt, J. O. Burton and G. Xu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:256

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common extra-pulmonary organ failure in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Renal recovery after AKI is determined by several factors. The objective of this study ...

    Authors: Anupol Panitchote, Omar Mehkri, Andrei Hastings, Tarik Hanane, Sevag Demirjian, Heather Torbic, Eduardo Mireles-Cabodevila, Sudhir Krishnan and Abhijit Duggal

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:255

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2019 20:286

  31. Content type: Research article

    In this study, we investigated the association of time-varying serum albumin levels with mortality over a 5-year period in one cohort of patients undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy.

    Authors: Na Hao, Ben-Chung Cheng, Hong-Tao Yang, Chien-Hsing Wu, Yang-Yang Lei, Mei-Chen Chao, Pei-Ying Wang, Li-Chueh Kuo, Sin-Hua Moi, Cheng-Hong Yang and Jin-Bor Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:254

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major complications of Human immune deficiency Virus (HIV) and a risk factor for poor outcome of these patients. We aimed to describe the profile and outcome of HIV p...

    Authors: Marie Patrice Halle, Noel Essomba, Hilaire Djantio, Germaine Tsele, Hermine Fouda, Namme Henri Luma, Enow Gloria Ashuntantang and Folefack Francois Kaze

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:253

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurs frequently in many end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, may significantly worsen survival odds and prognosis. However, the exact neuropathological mechanisms of MCI c...

    Authors: Haitao Lu, Zhengzhang Gu, Wei Xing, Shanhua Han, Jiangfen Wu, Hua Zhou, Jiule Ding and Jinggang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:246

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  34. Content type: Research article

    It remained lack of a kind of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) model which was widely used in clinical practice and comparable to CI-AKI in humans.

    Authors: Yuan-hui Liu, Jin-hua Xue, Deng-xuan Wu, Wei-jie Bei, Kun Wang, Yong Liu, Ji-yan Chen and Ning Tan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:243

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Lab tests on saliva could be useful because of low invasivity. Previous reports indicated that creatinine, uric acid, and potassium are measurable in saliva. For these analytes the study investigated methodolo...

    Authors: Giancarlo Bilancio, Pierpaolo Cavallo, Cinzia Lombardi, Ermanno Guarino, Vincenzo Cozza, Francesco Giordano, Giuseppe Palladino and Massimo Cirillo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:242

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) can help patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) that are referred late to dialysis. However, catheter patency and related complications of urgent-start PD have not ...

    Authors: Hongjian Ye, Xiao Yang, Chunyan Yi, Qunying Guo, Yafang Li, Qiongqiong Yang, Wei Chen, Haiping Mao, Jianbo Li, Yagui Qiu, Xunhua Zheng, Dihua Zhang, Jianxiong Lin, Zhijian Li, Zongpei Jiang, Fengxian Huang…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:238

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Spain has dramatically increased the number of controlled circulatory death donors (cDCD). The initial selection criteria for considering cDCD for kidney transplantation (KT) have been expanded progressively, ...

    Authors: María José Pérez-Sáez, Omar Lafuente Covarrubias, Domingo Hernández, Francesc Moreso, Edoardo Melilli, Javier Juega, Erika de Sousa, Paula López-Sánchez, María Luisa Rodríguez-Ferrero, Naroa Maruri-Kareaga, María Dolores Navarro, Rosalía Valero, María Auxiliadora Mazuecos, Francisco Llamas, Paloma Martín-Moreno, Antón Fernández-García…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:233

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Long-term exposure of mercury may induce glomerulonephritis. Clinical and pathological features of mercury-associated glomerulonephritis are not fully clear. This study retrospectively analyzed 35 cases of mer...

    Authors: Ai-bo Qin, Tao Su, Su-xia Wang, Fan Zhang, Fu-de Zhou and Ming-hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:228

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Hyperkalaemia occurs frequently in many maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients after parathyroidectomy (PTX) with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). However, the clinical risk factors that predict postope...

    Authors: Yu-Huan Song, Guang-Yan Cai, Yue-Fei Xiao, Yi-Ping Wang, Song-Tao Yang and Xiang-Mei Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:225

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation is a challenging issue in critically ill patients. CO2 can be eliminated by renal replacement therapy but studies are scarce and clinical relevance is unknown. We prospectively s...

    Authors: Joop Jonckheer, Herbert Spapen, Aziz Debain, Joy Demol, Marc Diltoer, Olivier Costa, Katrien Lanckmans, Taku Oshima, Patrick M. Honoré, Manu Malbrain and Elisabeth De Waele

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:222

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2019 20:312

  41. Content type: Research article

    The ASTRAL trial showed no difference in clinical outcomes between medical therapy and revascularization for atherosclerotic renal vascular disease (ARVD). Here we report a sub-study using echocardiography to ...

    Authors: Darren Green, Diana Vassallo, Kelly Handley, Natalie Ives, Keith Wheatley, Constantina Chrysochou, Janet Hegarty, Julian Wright, Jon Moss, Rajan K. Patel, Chris Deighan, John Webster, Peter Rowe, Sue Carr, Jenny Cross, Jamie O’Driscoll…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:220

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Klotho is a transmembrane protein acting as a co-receptor for FGF-23 and thus exerts clinical actions on mineral metabolism. The association of secreted Klotho with outcomes in CKD patients is unclear. This st...

    Authors: Evangelos Memmos, Pantelis Sarafidis, Panagiotis Pateinakis, Apostolos Tsiantoulas, Danai Faitatzidou, Panagiotis Giamalis, Vassileios Vasilikos and Aikaterini Papagianni

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:217

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Survival analysis of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) has been the subject of many studies. No study has evaluated the effect of different factors on the survival time of these patients. In this study...

    Authors: Vahid Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein Khademian, Seyed Jalil Masoumi, Mohammad Reza Morvaridi and Shahrokh Ezzatzadegan Jahromi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:215

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  44. Content type: Research article

    High serum calcium levels should be avoided in patients on hemodialysis (HD) because they can induce cardiovascular diseases and worsen the patient’s prognosis. In contrast, low serum calcium levels worsen the...

    Authors: Mineaki Kitamura, Yohei Tateishi, Shuntaro Sato, Satoko Kitamura, Yuki Ota, Kumiko Muta, Hiroshi Yamashita, Tadashi Uramatsu, Yoko Obata, Yasushi Mochizuki, Masaharu Nishikido, Tsuyoshi Izumo, Takashi Harada, Satoshi Funakoshi, Takayuki Matsuo, Akira Tsujino…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:210

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Evidence of chronic low levels of exposure to heavy metals in Sri Lanka has emerged in a number of studies carried out in the recent past. The source and magnitude of such exposures have to be understood in or...

    Authors: T. B. Ananda Jayalal, T. W. M. A. Jayaruwan Bandara, Sanath T. C. Mahawithanage, M. A. Jagath Wansapala and Sapthala P. L. Galappaththi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:208

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Methanol poisoning is a serious public health issue in developing countries, but few data are available in the literature on acute kidney injury (AKI) after methanol intoxication.

    Authors: Shu-Ting Chang, Yu-Ting Wang, Yi-Chou Hou, I-Kuan Wang, Hsiang-Hsi Hong, Cheng-Hao Weng, Wen-Hung Huang, Ching-Wei Hsu and Tzung-Hai Yen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:205

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Despite the interrelationships between obesity, eGFR and albuminuria, few large studies examine how obesity modifies the association between these markers of kidney function and adverse clinical outcomes.

    Authors: Marcello Tonelli, Natasha Wiebe, Csaba P. Kovesdy, Matthew T. James, Scott W. Klarenbach, Braden J. Manns and Brenda R. Hemmelgarn

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:204

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  48. Content type: Research article

    A low FT3 level is significantly associated with a variety of kidney disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it remains unclear whether low FT3 is associated with CI-AKI in patients who underwe...

    Authors: Kai-Yang Lin, Sun-Ying Wang, Hui Jiang, Han-Chuan Chen, Zhi-Yong Wu, Yan-Song Guo and Peng-Li Zhu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:201

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Chloride is speculated to have nephrotoxic properties. In healthy subjects we tested the hypothesis that acute chloride loading with 3% saline would induce kidney injury, which could be prevented with the loop...

    Authors: F. H. Mose, A. N. Jörgensen, M. H. Vrist, N. P. Ekelöf, E. B. Pedersen and J. N. Bech

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:200

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