Clinical Research

Section edited by Amir Kazory

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including controlled trials and case control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be directed to the ‘Epidemiology and Health Outcomes’ section, and Case reports should be directed to our dedicated ‘Case Report’ section

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  1. Research article

    Simple, readily available clinical indices predict early and late mortality among patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis

    The early identification of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) who are at increased risk for inferior clinical outcome at the time of diagnosis might help to optimize the immunosuppressive therapy....

    Ágnes Haris, Kálmán Polner, József Arányi, Henrik Braunitzer, Ilona Kaszás, László Rosivall, Gábor Kökény and István Mucsi

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:76

    Published on: 23 February 2017

  2. Research article

    NGAL expression during cardiopulmonary bypass does not predict severity of postoperative acute kidney injury

    Renal injury is a serious complication after cardiac surgery and therefore, early detection and much more prediction of postoperative kidney injury is desirable. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGA...

    Martin G. Friedrich, Ioannis Bougioukas, Johanna Kolle, Christian Bireta, Fawad A. Jebran, Marius Placzek and Theodor Tirilomis

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:73

    Published on: 21 February 2017

  3. Research article

    Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) gene polymorphisms and serum level as predictors of susceptibility and prognosis of acute kidney injury in the Chinese population

    Injury to the kidney epithelial barrier is a characteristic feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Serum surfactant protein-D (SP-D), a known biomarker of damaged alveolar epithelium, is also secreted by renal ...

    Jiao Liu, Guang Li, Lianghai Li, Zhiyong Liu, Qingshan Zhou, Guirong Wang and Dechang Chen

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:67

    Published on: 17 February 2017

  4. Research article

    The association between interleukin-19 concentration and diabetic nephropathy

    Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a newly discovered cytokine belonging to the Interleukin-10(IL-10) family. IL-19 have indispensable functions in many inflammatory processes and also can induce the angiogenic potenti...

    Li Li, Xu-gan Jiang, Juan-Yu Hu, ZHeng-Qing Yu, Jian-Yong Xu, Fan Liu, Guang-Chun Zhao, Lei Zhang, Hui-Ming Gu, Si-Jing Zhang and Jin Meng

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:65

    Published on: 15 February 2017

  5. Research article

    Prevalence and risk factors for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) among maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Infection with the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), although asymptomatic in most cases, can lead to potentially grave consequences, such as adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated...

    Rilma F. S. Santos, Gildásio C. Conceição, Márcia S. Martins, Angiolina Kraychete, Maria A. C. Penalva, Edgar M. Carvalho, Antonio Alberto Lopes and Paulo Novis Rocha

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:64

    Published on: 15 February 2017

  6. Research article

    Urinary sediment miRNAs reflect tubulointerstitial damage and therapeutic response in IgA nephropathy

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. The clinical spectrum of IgAN varies from minor urinary abnormalities to rapidly progressive renal failure. Evaluation of th...

    Shuang Liang, Guang-Yan Cai, Zhi-Yu Duan, Shu-wen Liu, Jie Wu, Yang Lv, Kai Hou, Zuo-xiang Li, Xue-Guang Zhang and Xiang-Mei Chen

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:63

    Published on: 15 February 2017

  7. Research article

    Acute kidney injury increases the risk of end-stage renal disease after cardiac surgery in an Asian population: a prospective cohort study

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The long-term association between AKI and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in an Asian population is unknown....

    Sophia Tsong Huey Chew, Roderica Rui Ge Ng, Weiling Liu, Khuan Yew Chow and Lian Kah Ti

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:60

    Published on: 13 February 2017

  8. Research article

    Efficacy and safety of calcineurin inhibitor treatment for IgA nephropathy: a meta-analysis

    IgA nephropathy is the most common progressive glomerular disease to end stage renal failure worldwide. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is a selective immunosuppressant widely used in organ transplantation. The ...

    Yu-Huan Song, Guang-Yan Cai, Yue-Fei Xiao, Yi-Ping Wang, Bao-Shi Yuan, Yuan-Yuan Xia, Si-Yang Wang, Pu Chen, Shu-Wen Liu and Xiang-Mei Chen

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:61

    Published on: 13 February 2017

  9. Research article

    Transformation of 5-D itch scale and numerical rating scale in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Pruritus is a common and frustrating symptom in hemodialysis (HD) patients and 5-D itch scale is proposed as a reliable measurement of pruritus. However, information regarding 5-D itch scale categories is curr...

    Jia-Wen Lai, Hung-Chih Chen, Che-Yi Chou, Hung-Rong Yen, Tsai-Chung Li, Mao-Feng Sun, Hen-Hong Chang, Chiu-Ching Huang, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Johannes Tschen and Chiz-Tzung Chang

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:56

    Published on: 8 February 2017

  10. Research article

    Latent variable modeling improves AKI risk factor identification and AKI prediction compared to traditional methods

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is diagnosed based on postoperative serum creatinine change, but AKI models have not consistently performed well, in part due to the omission of clinically important but practically u...

    Loren E. Smith, Derek K. Smith, Jeffrey D. Blume, Edward D. Siew and Frederic T. Billings

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:55

    Published on: 8 February 2017

  11. Research article

    Effect of large weight reductions on measured and estimated kidney function

    When patients experience large weight loss, muscle mass may be affected followed by changes in plasma creatinine (pCr). The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) include pCr. We hypothesised that...

    Bernt Johan von Scholten, Frederik Persson, Maria S. Svane, Tine W. Hansen, Sten Madsbad and Peter Rossing

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:52

    Published on: 6 February 2017

  12. Research article

    Comparative differential proteomic analysis of minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Minimal change disease (MCD) and primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are glomerular diseases characterized by nephrotic syndrome. Their diagnosis requires a renal biopsy, but it is an invasive pr...

    Vanessa Pérez, Dolores López, Ester Boixadera, Meritxell Ibernón, Anna Espinal, Josep Bonet and Ramón Romero

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:49

    Published on: 3 February 2017

  13. Research article

    Combination therapy with rituximab, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and prednisone for idiopathic membranous nephropathy: a case series

    Membranous nephropathy is a common cause of the nephrotic syndrome. Treatment with standard regimens fails to induce complete remission in most patients. We evaluated the efficacy of combination therapy with r...

    Frank B. Cortazar, David E. Leaf, Charles T. Owens, Karen Laliberte, William F. Pendergraft and John L. Niles

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:44

    Published on: 1 February 2017

  14. Research article

    Gitelman syndrome in a South African family presenting with hypokalaemia and unusual food cravings

    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterised by renal salt wasting with hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria. It is caused by mutations in

    Pieter Du Toit van der Merwe, Megan A. Rensburg, William L. Haylett, Soraya Bardien and M. Razeen Davids

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:38

    Published on: 26 January 2017

  15. Study protocol

    A prospective 2-site parallel intervention trial of a research-based film to increase exercise amongst older hemodialysis patients

    Evidence suggests that exercise training for hemodialysis patients positively improves morbidity and mortality outcomes, yet exercise programs remain rare and are not systematically incorporated into care. We ...

    Pia Kontos, Shabbir M.H. Alibhai, Karen-Lee Miller, Dina Brooks, Romeo Colobong, Trisha Parsons, Sarbjit Vanita Jassal, Alison Thomas, Malcolm Binns and Gary Naglie

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:37

    Published on: 26 January 2017

  16. Research article

    Indoxyl sulfate – the uremic toxin linking hemostatic system disturbances with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

    During chronic kidney disease progression, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease come into play. The present study investigated the impact of indoxyl sulfate, dietary tryptophan-derived uremi...

    Tomasz W. Kamiński, Krystyna Pawlak, Małgorzata Karbowska, Michał Myśliwiec and Dariusz Pawlak

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:35

    Published on: 25 January 2017

  17. Research article

    Renal function in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease receiving intravenous ferric carboxymaltose: an analysis of the randomized FIND-CKD trial

    Preclinical studies demonstrate renal proximal tubular injury after administration of some intravenous iron preparations but clinical data on renal effects of intravenous iron are sparse.

    Iain C. Macdougall, Andreas H. Bock, Fernando Carrera, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Carlo Gaillard, David Van Wyck, Yvonne Meier, Sylvain Larroque and Simon D. Roger

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:24

    Published on: 17 January 2017

  18. Research article

    Vascular access placement in patients with chronic kidney disease Stages 4 and 5 attending an inner city nephrology clinic: a cohort study and survey of providers

    The majority of incident hemodialysis (HD) patients initiate dialysis via catheters. We sought to identify factors associated with initiating hemodialysis with a functioning arterio-venous (AV) access.

    Narender Goel, Caroline Kwon, Teena P. Zachariah, Michael Broker, Vaughn W. Folkert, Carolyn Bauer and Michal L. Melamed

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:28

    Published on: 17 January 2017

  19. Research article

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of combined calcitriol and ergocalciferol versus ergocalciferol alone in chronic kidney disease with proteinuria

    KDOQI guideline suggests that nutritional vitamin D should be supplemented in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who have vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. However, there are scarce data regarding the add...

    Paweena Susantitaphong, Siriwan Nakwan, Sadudee Peerapornratana, Khajohn Tiranathanagul, Pisut Katavetin, Nattachai Srisawat, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa and Somchai Eiam-Ong

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:19

    Published on: 14 January 2017

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