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Clinical Research

Section edited by Amir Kazory

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects approximately 13% of patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, and is a common and important clinical sign of perioperative injury. The aim of our analysis was to identify ...

    Authors: Ivana Dedinská, Peter Mikolajčík, Patra Skálová, Marián Mokáň and Ľudovít Laca

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:272

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The product of the concentrations of urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (urinary [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP-7]) has been suggested as biomarker for early d...

    Authors: Judith Schiefer, Paul Lichtenegger, Gabriela A. Berlakovich, Walter Plöchl, Claus G. Krenn, David M. Baron, Joanna Baron-Stefaniak and Peter Faybik

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:269

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Current paradigms of detecting acute kidney injury (AKI) are insensitive and non-specific. Klotho is a pleiotropic protein that is predominantly expressed in renal tubules. In this study, we evaluated the diag...

    Authors: Yingying Qian, Lin Che, Yucheng Yan, Renhua Lu, Mingli Zhu, Song Xue, Zhaohui Ni and Leyi Gu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:268

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  4. Content type: Research article

    CKD has been recognized as risk factors for 25(OH) D deficiency, and Low levels of 25(OH) D have been suggested to be a trigger factor of decreased level of Hb. However, there is lack of information about the ...

    Authors: Shiv Kumar Sah and Laxman Prasad Adhikary

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:267

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Chronic Kidney Disease - Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) is a significant cause of morbidity among haemodialysis patients and is associated with pathological changes in phosphate, calcium and parathyroid h...

    Authors: Zhipeng Zhan, Brendan Smyth, Nigel D. Toussaint, Nicholas A. Gray, Li Zuo, Janak R. de Zoysa, Christopher T. Chan, Chenggang Jin, Anish Scaria, Carmel M. Hawley, Vlado Perkovic, Meg J. Jardine and Ling Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:258

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Factors associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. We aim to explore and quantify the associated factors of LVSD among PD patients.

    Authors: Teeranan Angkananard, Jirayut Janma, Thanapath Wannasiri, Piyathida Sangthong and Siribha Changsirikulchai

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:257

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  7. Content type: Research article

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the commonest global cause of glomerulonephritis. Extent of fibrosis, tubular atrophy and glomerulosclerosis predict renal function decline. Extent of renal fibrosis is assessed with ...

    Authors: M. P. Graham-Brown, A. Singh, J. Wormleighton, N. J. Brunskill, G. P. McCann, J. Barratt, J. O. Burton and G. Xu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:256

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common extra-pulmonary organ failure in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Renal recovery after AKI is determined by several factors. The objective of this study ...

    Authors: Anupol Panitchote, Omar Mehkri, Andrei Hasting, Tarik Hanane, Sevag Demirjian, Heather Torbic, Eduardo Mireles-Cabodevila, Sudhir Krishnan and Abhijit Duggal

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:255

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  9. Content type: Research article

    In this study, we investigated the association of time-varying serum albumin levels with mortality over a 5-year period in one cohort of patients undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy.

    Authors: Na Hao, Ben-Chung Cheng, Hong-Tao Yang, Chien-Hsing Wu, Yang-Yang Lei, Mei-Chen Chao, Pei-Ying Wang, Li-Chueh Kuo, Sin-Hua Moi, Cheng-Hong Yang and Jin-Bor Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:254

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the major complications of Human immune deficiency Virus (HIV) and a risk factor for poor outcome of these patients. We aimed to describe the profile and outcome of HIV p...

    Authors: Marie Patrice Halle, Noel Essomba, Hilaire Djantio, Germaine Tsele, Hermine Fouda, Namme Henri Luma, Enow Gloria Ashuntantang and Folefack Francois Kaze

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:253

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurs frequently in many end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, may significantly worsen survival odds and prognosis. However, the exact neuropathological mechanisms of MCI c...

    Authors: Haitao Lu, Zhengzhang Gu, Wei Xing, Shanhua Han, Jiangfen Wu, Hua Zhou, Jiule Ding and Jinggang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:246

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  12. Content type: Research article

    It remained lack of a kind of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) model which was widely used in clinical practice and comparable to CI-AKI in humans.

    Authors: Yuan-hui Liu, Jin-hua Xue, Deng-xuan Wu, Wei-jie Bei, Kun Wang, Yong Liu, Ji-yan Chen and Ning Tan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:243

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Lab tests on saliva could be useful because of low invasivity. Previous reports indicated that creatinine, uric acid, and potassium are measurable in saliva. For these analytes the study investigated methodolo...

    Authors: Giancarlo Bilancio, Pierpaolo Cavallo, Cinzia Lombardi, Ermanno Guarino, Vincenzo Cozza, Francesco Giordano, Giuseppe Palladino and Massimo Cirillo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:242

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) can help patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) that are referred late to dialysis. However, catheter patency and related complications of urgent-start PD have not ...

    Authors: Hongjian Ye, Xiao Yang, Chunyan Yi, Qunying Guo, Yafang Li, Qiongqiong Yang, Wei Chen, Haiping Mao, Jianbo Li, Yagui Qiu, Xunhua Zheng, Dihua Zhang, Jianxiong Lin, Zhijian Li, Zongpei Jiang, Fengxian Huang…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:238

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Spain has dramatically increased the number of controlled circulatory death donors (cDCD). The initial selection criteria for considering cDCD for kidney transplantation (KT) have been expanded progressively, ...

    Authors: María José Pérez-Sáez, Omar Lafuente Covarrubias, Domingo Hernández, Francesc Moreso, Edoardo Melilli, Javier Juega, Erika de Sousa, Paula López-Sánchez, María Luisa Rodríguez-Ferrero, Naroa Maruri-Kareaga, María Dolores Navarro, Rosalía Valero, María Auxiliadora Mazuecos, Francisco Llamas, Paloma Martín-Moreno, Antón Fernández-García…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:233

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Long-term exposure of mercury may induce glomerulonephritis. Clinical and pathological features of mercury-associated glomerulonephritis are not fully clear. This study retrospectively analyzed 35 cases of mer...

    Authors: Ai-bo Qin, Tao Su, Su-xia Wang, Fan Zhang, Fu-de Zhou and Ming-hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:228

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Hyperkalaemia occurs frequently in many maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients after parathyroidectomy (PTX) with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). However, the clinical risk factors that predict postope...

    Authors: Yu-Huan Song, Guang-Yan Cai, Yue-Fei Xiao, Yi-Ping Wang, Song-Tao Yang and Xiang-Mei Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:225

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation is a challenging issue in critically ill patients. CO2 can be eliminated by renal replacement therapy but studies are scarce and clinical relevance is unknown. We prospectively s...

    Authors: Joop Jonckheer, Herbert Spapen, Aziz Debain, Joy Demol, Marc Diltoer, Olivier Costa, Katrien Lanckmans, Taku Oshima, Patrick Honoré, Manu Malbrain and Elisabeth De Waele

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:222

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The ASTRAL trial showed no difference in clinical outcomes between medical therapy and revascularization for atherosclerotic renal vascular disease (ARVD). Here we report a sub-study using echocardiography to ...

    Authors: Darren Green, Diana Vassallo, Kelly Handley, Natalie Ives, Keith Wheatley, Constantina Chrysochou, Janet Hegarty, Julian Wright, Jon Moss, Rajan K. Patel, Chris Deighan, John Webster, Peter Rowe, Sue Carr, Jenny Cross, Jamie O’Driscoll…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:220

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Klotho is a transmembrane protein acting as a co-receptor for FGF-23 and thus exerts clinical actions on mineral metabolism. The association of secreted Klotho with outcomes in CKD patients is unclear. This st...

    Authors: Evangelos Memmos, Pantelis Sarafidis, Panagiotis Pateinakis, Apostolos Tsiantoulas, Danai Faitatzidou, Panagiotis Giamalis, Vassileios Vasilikos and Aikaterini Papagianni

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:217

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Survival analysis of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) has been the subject of many studies. No study has evaluated the effect of different factors on the survival time of these patients. In this study...

    Authors: Vahid Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein Khademian, Seyed Jalil Masoumi, Mohammad Reza Morvaridi and Shahrokh Ezzatzadegan Jahromi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:215

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  22. Content type: Research article

    High serum calcium levels should be avoided in patients on hemodialysis (HD) because they can induce cardiovascular diseases and worsen the patient’s prognosis. In contrast, low serum calcium levels worsen the...

    Authors: Mineaki Kitamura, Yohei Tateishi, Shuntaro Sato, Satoko Kitamura, Yuki Ota, Kumiko Muta, Hiroshi Yamashita, Tadashi Uramatsu, Yoko Obata, Yasushi Mochizuki, Masaharu Nishikido, Tsuyoshi Izumo, Takashi Harada, Satoshi Funakoshi, Takayuki Matsuo, Akira Tsujino…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:210

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Evidence of chronic low levels of exposure to heavy metals in Sri Lanka has emerged in a number of studies carried out in the recent past. The source and magnitude of such exposures have to be understood in or...

    Authors: T. B. Ananda Jayalal, T. W. M. A. Jayaruwan Bandara, Sanath T. C. Mahawithanage, M. A. Jagath Wansapala and Sapthala P. L. Galappaththi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:208

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Methanol poisoning is a serious public health issue in developing countries, but few data are available in the literature on acute kidney injury (AKI) after methanol intoxication.

    Authors: Shu-Ting Chang, Yu-Ting Wang, Yi-Chou Hou, I-Kuan Wang, Hsiang-Hsi Hong, Cheng-Hao Weng, Wen-Hung Huang, Ching-Wei Hsu and Tzung-Hai Yen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:205

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Despite the interrelationships between obesity, eGFR and albuminuria, few large studies examine how obesity modifies the association between these markers of kidney function and adverse clinical outcomes.

    Authors: Marcello Tonelli, Natasha Wiebe, Csaba P. Kovesdy, Matthew T. James, Scott W. Klarenbach, Braden J. Manns and Brenda R. Hemmelgarn

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:204

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  26. Content type: Research article

    A low FT3 level is significantly associated with a variety of kidney disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it remains unclear whether low FT3 is associated with CI-AKI in patients who underwe...

    Authors: Kai-Yang Lin, Sun-Ying Wang, Hui Jiang, Han-Chuan Chen, Zhi-Yong Wu, Yan-Song Guo and Peng-Li Zhu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:201

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Chloride is speculated to have nephrotoxic properties. In healthy subjects we tested the hypothesis that acute chloride loading with 3% saline would induce kidney injury, which could be prevented with the loop...

    Authors: F. H. Mose, A. N. Jörgensen, M. H. Vrist, N. P. Ekelöf, E. B. Pedersen and J. N. Bech

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:200

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Gait speed (GS) and handgrip strength (HGS), both factors associated with frailty and sarcopenia, are reportedly associated with CV events in the general population. However, little is known about the impact o...

    Authors: Atsumi Kuki, Kentaro Tanaka, Akifumi Kushiyama, Yoshihide Tanaka, Shuta Motonishi, Yasuji Sugano, Toru Furuya and Takashi Ozawa

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:196

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major complication of acute myocardial infarction(AMI), which can significantly increase mortality. This study is to analyze the related risk factors and establish a prediction s...

    Authors: Feng-bo Xu, Hong Cheng, Tong Yue, Nan Ye, He-jia Zhang and Yi-pu Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:195

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  30. Content type: Study protocol

    The use of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with lactic acidosis. However, the information available in patients with moderate-severe chronic kidney disease is scarce.

    Authors: Consuelo Pedrós, Mónica Ávila, Ainhoa Gómez-Lumbreras, Marcela Manríquez and Rosa Morros

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:193

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit higher prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CaC) than general population. CaC has been proposed as a risk factor for mortality in end-stage C...

    Authors: Marta Cano-Megías, Pablo Guisado-Vasco, Hanane Bouarich, Gabriel de Arriba-de la Fuente, Patricia de Sequera-Ortiz, Concepción Álvarez-Sanz and Diego Rodríguez-Puyol

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:188

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The performance of urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) for the detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) was controversial. uNAG is positively correlated with blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia is common...

    Authors: Lin Wang, Yujun Deng, Yiling Zhai, Feng Xu, Jinghua Li, Danqing Zhang, Lu Gao, Yating Hou, Xin OuYang, Linhui Hu, Jie Yuan, Heng Ye, Ruibin Chi and Chunbo Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:186

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be an important link between bone loss and vascular calcification. This study...

    Authors: Jia-Sian Hou, Yu-Li Lin, Chih-Hsien Wang, Yu-Hsien Lai, Chiu-Huang Kuo, Yi-Maun Subeq and Bang-Gee Hsu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:184

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after heart surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is produced in injured kidney. NGAL has been used as an early plasma biomarker for AKI in patients und...

    Authors: Arie Passov, Liisa Petäjä, Marjut Pihlajoki, Ulla-Stina Salminen, Raili Suojaranta, Antti Vento, Sture Andersson, Ville Pettilä, Alexey Schramko and Eero Pesonen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:182

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Reports on vitamin C in HD patients have shown effects of vitamin C deficiency in association with scurvy symptoms. Dialyzability of water soluble vitamins is high, and substantial losses in those who are dial...

    Authors: Jochen G. Raimann, Samer R. Abbas, Li Liu, Brett Larive, Gerald Beck, Peter Kotanko, Nathan W. Levin and Garry Handelman

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:179

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Adherence to phosphate binder treatment is important to prevent high serum phosphate level in chronic dialysis patients. We therefore wanted to investigate patient knowledge, beliefs about and adherence to pho...

    Authors: Bodil Jahren Hjemås, Katrine Bøvre, Liv Mathiesen, Jonas Christoffer Lindstrøm and Kathrin Bjerknes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:178

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The influence of pre- or postprandial administration on pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine is supposed to be less in gel-based formulations than in microemulsions. This study was designed to investigate the infl...

    Authors: Anja Gäckler, Sebastian Dolff, Hana Rohn, Johannes Korth, Benjamin Wilde, Ute Eisenberger, Anna Mitchell, Andreas Kribben and Oliver Witzke

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:167

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Although the relationship between manifest chronic kidney disease and reduced cognitive function is well established, limited data exists on GFR and cognitive function in the general population. Both the brain...

    Authors: Silje Småbrekke, Henrik Schirmer, Toralf Melsom, Marit Dahl Solbu and Bjørn Odvar Eriksen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:166

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  39. Content type: Research article

    There is increasing awareness that, besides patient survival, Quality of Life (QOL) is a relevant outcome factor for patients who have a chronic disease. In haemodialysis (HD) patients, intradialytic hypotensi...

    Authors: Johanna Kuipers, Jurjen K. Oosterhuis, Wolter Paans, Wim P. Krijnen, Carlo A. J. M. Gaillard, Ralf Westerhuis and Casper F. M. Franssen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:164

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of diseases associated in most cases with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Rituximab- based remission i...

    Authors: L. Caroti, C. L. Cirami, L. Di Maria, A. Larti, P. Carta, E. Dervishi, S. Farsetti, A. Tsalouchos, L. Novelli and E. E. Minetti

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:162

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  41. Content type: Research article

    It has been reported that people living with HIV in West Africa exhibited the highest risks for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the world. Here, we aimed at determining the CKD frequency and changes in kidney ...

    Authors: Nongodo Firmin Kaboré, Armel Poda, Jacques Zoungrana, Ollo Da, Laura Ciaffi, Aoua Semdé, Issouf Yaméogo, Adrien B. Sawadogo, Eric Delaporte, Nicolas Meda, Sophie Limou and Amandine Cournil

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:155

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Dialysis patients are frequently exposed to Staphylococcus aureus due to stays in dialysis centers, hospitals or rest homes. The hemodialysis vascular access is a potential entry site for S. aureus, in particular...

    Authors: Matthias Scheuch, Sabrina Freiin von Rheinbaben, Antje Kabisch, Jonas Engeßer, Susanne Ahrendt, Thomas Dabers, Christian Kohler, Silva Holtfreter, Barbara M. Bröker and Sylvia Stracke

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:153

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  43. Content type: Research article

    In patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD), left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy with impaired LV function, which is called uremic cardiomyopathy (UC) is often observed. The UC historically has been consider...

    Authors: Tomasz Zapolski, Jacek Furmaga, Andrzej P. Wysokiński, Anna Wysocka, Sławomir Rudzki and Andrzej Jaroszyński

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:152

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The serum immunoglobulin A (IgA)/C3 ratio is considered to be an effective predictor of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). This study sought to explore the diagnostic value of the IgA/C3 ratio in IgAN among primary glome...

    Authors: Wen-yu Gong, Man Liu, Dan Luo, Fan-na Liu, Liang-hong Yin, Yuan-qing Li, Jun Zhang and Hui Peng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:150

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important component of patient-centered outcomes and a useful parameter for monitoring quality of care. We assessed HRQoL, its determinants, and associations with m...

    Authors: Ming Pei, Rute Aguiar, Agneta A. Pagels, Olof Heimbürger, Peter Stenvinkel, Peter Bárány, Charlotte Medin, Stefan H. Jacobson, Britta Hylander, Bengt Lindholm and Abdul Rashid Qureshi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:144

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide, and proteinuria is a well-established marker of disease progression in CKD patients. Propolis, a natural resin produced by bees from plant mat...

    Authors: Marcelo Augusto Duarte Silveira, Flávio Teles, Andressa A. Berretta, Talita R. Sanches, Camila Eleutério Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos Seguro and Lúcia Andrade

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:140

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  47. Content type: Research article

    An increased incidence of thromboembolic events (TE) are reported in nephrotic syndrome (NS) leading to recommendations for prophylactic anticoagulation (PAC). However, as no randomized clinical trial has esta...

    Authors: Sarah Kelddal, Karen Marie Nykjær, Jon Waarst Gregersen and Henrik Birn

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:139

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Proteinuria screening is recommended for patients with hypertension to screen for kidney disease and identify those at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. However, screening rates among hypertensive pati...

    Authors: Julia Leddy, Jamie A. Green, Christina Yule, Juliann Molecavage, Josef Coresh and Alex R. Chang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:132

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  49. Content type: Research article

    Prediction of successful discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) might reduce complications of over- and under-treatment. The aim of this study was to identify renal and non-renal predic...

    Authors: Susanne Stads, K. Merijn Kant, Margriet F. C. de Jong, Wouter de Ruijter, Christa M. Cobbaert, Michiel G. H. Betjes, Diederik Gommers and Heleen M. Oudemans-van Straaten

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:129

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  50. Content type: Research article

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released into extracellular subsequent to cell injury and death can promote inflammation in patients and animal models. However, the effects of peritoneal dialysate cell-free mtDNA on...

    Authors: Xishao Xie, Junni Wang, Shilong Xiang, Zhimin Chen, Xiaohui Zhang and Jianghua Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:128

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