Clinical Research

Section edited by Amir Kazory

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including controlled trials and case control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be directed to the ‘Epidemiology and Health Outcomes’ section, and Case reports should be directed to our dedicated ‘Case Report’ section

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  1. Research article

    Diagnosis and outcomes of acute kidney injury using surrogate and imputation methods for missing preadmission creatinine values

    Missing preadmission serum creatinine (SCr) values are a common obstacle to assess acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and outcomes. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines suggest usin...

    Amélie Bernier-Jean, William Beaubien-Souligny, Rémi Goupil, François Madore, François Paquette, Stéphan Troyanov and Josée Bouchard

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:141

    Published on: 28 April 2017

  2. Study protocol

    Cost-effectiveness of home telemonitoring in chronic kidney disease patients at different stages by a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (eNephro): rationale and study design

    Home telemonitoring has developed considerably over recent years in chronic diseases in order to improve communication between healthcare professionals and patients and to promote early detection of deteriorat...

    Nathalie Thilly, Jacques Chanliau, Luc Frimat, Christian Combe, Pierre Merville, Philippe Chauveau, Pierre Bataille, Raymond Azar, David Laplaud, Christian Noël and Michèle Kessler

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:126

    Published on: 5 April 2017

  3. Research article

    Sleep apnea prevalence in chronic kidney disease - association with total body water and symptoms

    Sleep apnea is common and associated with poor outcome in severe chronic kidney disease, but validated screening tools are not available. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of sleep apnea in this ...

    Hsin-Chia Huang, Giles Walters, Girish Talaulikar, Derek Figurski, Annette Carroll, Mark Hurwitz, Krishna Karpe and Richard Singer

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:125

    Published on: 4 April 2017

  4. Research article

    Long-term clinical outcome for patients poisoned by the fungal nephrotoxin orellanine

    Accidental intake of mushrooms of the Cortinarius species (deadly webcap) may cause irreversible renal damage and the need for dialysis or transplantation. The species is found in forests of Northern Europe, Scan...

    Heidi Hedman, Johan Holmdahl, Johan Mölne, Kerstin Ebefors, Börje Haraldsson and Jenny Nyström

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:121

    Published on: 3 April 2017

  5. Research article

    Nephrotoxicity-induced proteinuria increases biomarker diagnostic thresholds in acute kidney injury

    Paraquat ingestion is frequently fatal. While biomarkers of kidney damage increase during paraquat-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), significant concurrent proteinuria may alter diagnostic thresholds for diag...

    Fahim Mohamed, Nicholas A. Buckley, John W. Pickering, Klintean Wunnapuk, Sandamali Dissanayake, Umesh Chathuranga, Indika Gawarammana, Shaluka Jayamanne and Zoltan H. Endre

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:122

    Published on: 3 April 2017

  6. Study protocol

    The Ferumoxytol for Anemia of CKD Trial (FACT)—a randomized controlled trial of repeated doses of ferumoxytol or iron sucrose in patients on hemodialysis: background and rationale

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD), affecting most patients on hemodialysis and imposing a substantial clinical burden. Treatment with iron supplementation i...

    Iain C. Macdougall, Naomi V. Dahl, Kristine Bernard, Zhu Li, Alka Batyky and William E. Strauss

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:117

    Published on: 3 April 2017

  7. Review

    The 6R’s of drug induced nephrotoxicity

    Drug induced kidney injury is a frequent adverse event which contributes to morbidity and increased healthcare utilization. Our current knowledge of drug induced kidney disease is limited due to varying defini...

    Linda Awdishu and Ravindra L. Mehta

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:124

    Published on: 3 April 2017

  8. Research article

    Relationship between serum bilirubin concentrations and diabetic nephropathy in Shanghai Han’s patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Recent studies highlight a negative association between total bilirubin concentrations and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study evaluated the relationship between bilirubin concentr...

    Xu Li, Lei Zhang, Haibing Chen, Kaifeng Guo, Haoyong Yu, Jian Zhou, Ming Li, Qing Li, Lianxi Li, Jun Yin, Fang Liu, Yuqian Bao, Junfeng Han and Weiping Jia

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:114

    Published on: 31 March 2017

  9. Research article

    Plasma Urotensin II levels in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease: a single-centre study

    Increased plasma Urotensin II (UII) levels have been found in adults with renal diseases. Studies in children are scarce. The objective of the study is to estimate plasma UII levels in subjects with chronic ki...

    Anastasia Garoufi, Styliani Drapanioti, Antonios Marmarinos, Varvara Askiti, Andromachi J. Mitsioni, Maria Mila, Georgia Grigoriadou, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Constantinos J. Stefanidis and Dimitrios Gourgiotis

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:113

    Published on: 31 March 2017

  10. Research article

    Association of IL1 beta gene polymorphism and allograft functions in renal transplant recipients :a case control study from Kashmir Valley

    Cytokines have been found to be the important mediators during renal graft outcome. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate the role of recipients’ IL-1 β promoter (−511) and IL-1 β exon-5 (+3954) pol...

    Mohammad Ashraf Bhat, Manzoor Ahmad Parry, Saniya Nissar, Aga Syed Sameer, Imtiyaz A. Bhat, Zafar A. Shah and Roohi Rasool

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:111

    Published on: 30 March 2017

  11. Research article

    Early urinary biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus show involvement of kallikrein-kinin system

    Additional urinary biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy (DN) are needed, providing early and reliable diagnosis and new insights into its mechanisms. Rigorous selection criteria and homogeneous study population...

    Lenka Vitova, Zdenek Tuma, Jiri Moravec, Milan Kvapil, Martin Matejovic and Jan Mares

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:112

    Published on: 30 March 2017

  12. Research article

    Factors affecting the long-term outcomes of idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    We attempted to describe the clinical features and determine the factors associated with renal survival in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and to determine the fac...

    Hyuk Huh, Hajeong Lee, Jung Pyo Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Sohee Oh, Yun Kyu Oh, Yon Su Kim and Chun Soo Lim

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:104

    Published on: 27 March 2017

  13. Research article

    Hyperuricemia after orthotopic liver transplantation: divergent associations with progression of renal disease, incident end-stage renal disease, and mortality

    Although hyperuricemia is common after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), its relationship to mortality, progressive kidney disease, or the development of end stage renal disease (ESRD) is not well-descri...

    Joseph C. Longenecker, Sana Waheed, Ghassan Bandak, Christine A. Murakami, Blaithin A. McMahon, Allan C. Gelber and Mohamed G. Atta

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:103

    Published on: 27 March 2017

  14. Research article

    The risk of diabetic renal function impairment in the first decade after diagnosed of diabetes mellitus is correlated with high variability of visit-to-visit systolic and diastolic blood pressure: a case control study

    The variability of visit-to-visit (VVV) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is proved as a predictor of renal function deterioration in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney...

    Chi-Hsiao Yeh, Hsiu-Chin Yu, Tzu-Yen Huang, Pin-Fu Huang, Yao-Chang Wang, Tzu-Ping Chen and Shun-Ying Yin

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:99

    Published on: 22 March 2017

  15. Research article

    Delta neutrophil index is an independent predictor of mortality in septic acute kidney injury patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy

    Delta neutrophil index (DNI), representing an elevated fraction of circulating immature granulocytes in acute infection, has been reported as a useful marker for predicting mortality in patients with sepsis. T...

    In Mi Han, Chang-Yun Yoon, Dong Ho Shin, Youn Kyung Kee, Seung Gyu Han, Young Eun Kwon, Kyoung Sook Park, Mi Jung Lee, Hyung Jung Oh, Jung Tak Park, Seung Hyeok Han, Shin-Wook Kang and Tae-Hyun Yoo

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:94

    Published on: 20 March 2017

  16. Research article

    Cardiovascular risk is similar in patients with glomerulonephritis compared to other types of chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to glomerulonephritis (GN) are thought to be at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no study has examined whether GN directly contributes to CV r...

    Holly L. Hutton, Adeera Levin, Jagbir Gill, Ognjenka Djurdjev, Mila Tang and Sean J. Barbour

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:95

    Published on: 20 March 2017

  17. Research article

    Renal effects of metallothionein induction by zinc in vitro and in vivo

    Metallothionein (MTT) is an endogenous antioxidant that can be induced by both zinc (Zn) and ischemia. In kidneys, increased MTT expression exerts a putative protective role in diabetes and hypoxia. Our goal w...

    Moritz Schanz, Lea Schaaf, Juergen Dippon, Dagmar Biegger, Peter Fritz, Mark Dominik Alscher and Martin Kimmel

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:91

    Published on: 16 March 2017

  18. Research article

    Clinical and laboratory parameters associated with acute kidney injury in patients with snakebite envenomation: a prospective observational study from Myanmar

    Snakebite-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common community-acquired AKI in tropical countries leading to death and disability. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the occurrence of snakebite-re...

    Kyi-Phyu Aye, Vipa Thanachartwet, Chit Soe, Varunee Desakorn, Khin-Thida Thwin, Supat Chamnanchanunt, Duangjai Sahassananda, Thanom Supaporn and Visith Sitprija

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:92

    Published on: 16 March 2017

  19. Research article

    Significance of clinical and morphological prognostic risk factors in IgA nephropathy: follow-up study of comparison patient groups with and without renoprotection

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent glomerulonephritis in many countries including Estonia. There is no specific treatment for IgAN but renoprotection is indicated when proteinuria is >1 g/day. We aime...

    Živile Riispere, Anne Kuudeberg, Elviira Seppet, Kristin Sepp, Madis Ilmoja, Merike Luman, Külli Kõlvald, Asta Auerbach and Mai Ots-Rosenberg

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:89

    Published on: 14 March 2017

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