Clinical Research

Section edited by Amir Kazory

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including controlled trials and case control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be directed to the ‘Epidemiology and Health Outcomes’ section, and Case reports should be directed to our dedicated ‘Case Report’ section

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  1. Research article

    Effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium, GFR and central hemodynamics in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease during inhibition of the nitric oxide system: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study

    Tolvaptan slows progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by antagonizing the vasopressin-cAMP axis. Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates natriuresis and diuresis, but its role is unknown dur...

    Safa Al Therwani, My Emma Sofie Malmberg, Jeppe Bakkestroem Rosenbaek, Jesper Noergaard Bech and Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:268

    Published on: 15 August 2017

  2. Research article

    Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterization of kidney lesions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease

    Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of cystic kidney disease that requires imaging monitoring in many cases. However, these same patients often have contraindications to contrast-enhance...

    Emily Hueywen Chang, Wui Kheong Chong, Sandeep Kumar Kasoji, Julia Rose Fielding, Ersan Altun, Lee B. Mullin, Jung In Kim, Jason Peter Fine, Paul Alexander Dayton and Wendy Kimryn Rathmell

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:266

    Published on: 9 August 2017

  3. Research article

    A comparison of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    To investigate the impact of timing the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), focusing on the randomized controlled trial...

    Xiao-mei Yang, Guo-wei Tu, Ji-li Zheng, Bo Shen, Guo-guang Ma, Guang-wei Hao, Jian Gao and Zhe Luo

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:264

    Published on: 7 August 2017

  4. Research article

    Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin to predict renal response after induction therapy in active lupus nephritis

    Tubulointerstitial injury is important to predict the progression of lupus nephritis (LN). Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been reported to detect worsening LN disease activity. Thu...

    Bancha Satirapoj, Chagriya Kitiyakara, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Yingyos Avihingsanon and Ouppatham Supasyndh

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:263

    Published on: 4 August 2017

  5. Research article

    Predictive factors and prevalence of microalbuminuria in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional analysis

    Renal dysfunction is a common problem in the HIV+ population, due to the effect of both the HIV virus and the several classes of ARV drugs such as tenofovir (TDF). It is also known that the presence of renal d...

    Katia Falasca, Marta Di Nicola, Italo Porfilio, Claudio Ucciferri, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Chiara Gabrielli, Daniela Francisci and Jacopo Vecchiet

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:255

    Published on: 28 July 2017

  6. Research article

    Multiple myeloma can be accurately diagnosed in acute kidney injury patients using a rapid serum free light chain test

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Whether serum free light chain (sFLC) measurements can distinguish between myeloma and other causes of AKI requires confirmation to g...

    Jennifer L. J. Heaney, John P. Campbell, Punit Yadav, Ann E. Griffin, Meena Shemar, Jennifer H. Pinney and Mark T. Drayson

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:247

    Published on: 20 July 2017

  7. Research article

    Rhabdomyolysis in an HIV cohort: epidemiology, causes and outcomes

    The Literature on rhabdomyolysis in the HIV-positive population is sparse and limited. We aimed to explore the incidence, patient characteristics, etiologies and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis in a cohort of HIV-p...

    Sahar H. Koubar, Michelle M. Estrella, Rugmini Warrier, Richard D. Moore, Gregory M. Lucas, Mohamed G. Atta and Derek M. Fine

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:242

    Published on: 17 July 2017

  8. Research article

    Performance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, clusterin, and cystatin C in predicting diabetic kidney disease and diabetic microalbuminuria: a consecutive cohort study

    Tubular biomarkers have been regarded as emerging and promising markers for early diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The study was to determine the diagnostic capabilities of tubular biomarkers (urina...

    Xian-Fei Zeng, Dong-Xue Lu, Jun-Min Li, Yun Tan, Zhuo Li, Lei Zhou, Zeng-Qian Xi, Shu-Miao Zhang and Wei Duan

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:233

    Published on: 12 July 2017

  9. Research article

    Serum lactate level and mortality in metformin-associated lactic acidosis requiring renal replacement therapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series

    The current practice concerning timing, mode, and dose of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) with renal failure remains unknown. To investigate whether...

    Hung-Chieh Yeh, I-Wen Ting, Ching-Wei Tsai, Jenn-Yu Wu and Chin-Chi Kuo

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:229

    Published on: 10 July 2017

  10. Research article

    Response to immunosuppressive therapy in PLA2R- associated and non-PLA2R- associated idiopathic membranous nephropathy: a retrospective, multicenter cohort study

    According to renal M type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) immunohistochemistry, idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) could be categorized into PLA2R-associated and non-PLA2R-associated IMN. We conducted a re...

    Jia Wang, Qionghong Xie, Zhuxing Sun, Ningxin Xu, Yan Li, Liang Wang, Shaojun Liu, Jun Xue and Chuan-Ming Hao

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:227

    Published on: 10 July 2017

  11. Research article

    CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C glomerular filtration rate estimation equation seems more suitable for Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease than other equations

    The aim of this study was to identify the optimal equation that accurately estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage in the Chinese population.

    Xiao-Hua Chi, Gui-Ping Li, Quan-Shi Wang, Yong-Shuai Qi, Kai Huang, Qian Zhang and Yao-ming Xue

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:226

    Published on: 10 July 2017

  12. Research article

    Circulating osteoprotegerin is associated with chronic kidney disease in hypertensive patients

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein that plays an important regulatory role in the skeletal, vascular, and immune system. It has been shown that OPG predicts chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetic patien...

    Stella Bernardi, Barbara Toffoli, Fleur Bossi, Riccardo Candido, Elisabetta Stenner, Renzo Carretta, Fabio Barbone and Bruno Fabris

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:219

    Published on: 6 July 2017

  13. Study protocol

    CRRTnet: a prospective, multi-national, observational study of continuous renal replacement therapy practices

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the recommended modality of dialysis for critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability. Yet there remains significant variability in how CRRT is prescribed...

    Michael Heung, Sean M. Bagshaw, Andrew A. House, Luis A. Juncos, Robin Piazza and Stuart L. Goldstein

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:222

    Published on: 6 July 2017

  14. Research article

    Urinalysis findings and urinary kidney injury biomarker concentrations

    Urinary biomarkers of kidney injury are presumed to reflect renal tubular damage. However, their concentrations may be influenced by other factors, such as hematuria or pyuria. We sought to examine what non-in...

    Girish N. Nadkarni, Steven G. Coca, Allison Meisner, Shanti Patel, Kathleen F. Kerr, Uptal D. Patel, Jay L. Koyner, Amit X. Garg, Heather Thiessen Philbrook, Charles L. Edelstein, Michael Shlipak, Joe El-Khoury and Chirag R. Parikh

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:218

    Published on: 6 July 2017

  15. Research article

    Polyethyleneimine-treated polyacrylonitrile membrane hemofilter for critically ill patients receiving anticoagulant-free prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy: a single-center, prospective, self-controlled pilot study

    Critically ill patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) are at risk of disease-related bleeding. Systemic heparinization should be avoided. AN69ST, a polyethyleneimine-treated polyacrylonitrile (AN69...

    Tao Su, Qizhuang Jin and Zhongyuan Liu

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:208

    Published on: 30 June 2017

  16. Research article

    C-terminal fragment of agrin (CAF) levels predict acute kidney injury after acute myocardial infarction

    Patients with acute myocardial infarction are at high risk for acute kidney injury. Novel biomarkers that can predict acute kidney injury in AMI may allow timely interventions. C-terminal fragment of agrin (CA...

    Spyridon Arampatzis, Georgios Chalikias, Vasilios Devetzis, Stavros Konstantinides, Uyen Huynh-Do and Dimitrios Tziakas

    BMC Nephrology 2017 18:202

    Published on: 24 June 2017

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