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Clinical Research

Section edited by Amir Kazory

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including controlled trials and case control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should be directed to the ‘Epidemiology and Health Outcomes’ section, and Case reports should be directed to our dedicated ‘Case Report’ section

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  1. Content type: Study protocol

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients require a renal replacement therapy (RRT) to filter accumulated toxins and remove excess water, which are associated with impaired physical function. Hemodialysis (HD) r...

    Authors: Roberto Pecoits-Filho, John W. Larkin, Carlos Eduardo Poli-de-Figueiredo, Américo Lourenço Cuvello Neto, Ana Beatriz Barra, Sinaia Canhada, Ludimila Guedim de Campos, Juliane Woehl, Priscila Bezerra Gonçalves, Hao Han, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Jochen G. Raimann and Maria Eugenia F. Canziani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:98

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Hyperuricemia (HUA) is very common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). HUA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and accelerates the progression of CKD. Our study aimed to explore the rela...

    Authors: Shulei Fan, Ping Zhang, Amanda Ying Wang, Xia Wang, Li Wang, Guisen Li and Daqing Hong

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:95

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill children is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study we evaluated the effect of AKI severity on the incidence of short-term mortality and mor...

    Authors: Osama Y. Safder, Khalid A. Alhasan, Mohamed A. Shalaby, Norah Khathlan, Suleman A. Al Rezgan, Amr S. Albanna and Jameela A. Kari

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:89

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is an important cause of acute kidney injury and often a potentially reversible disease. However, the role of steroids in ATIN remains controversial and the underlying...

    Authors: Donghwan Yun, Myoung-jin Jang, Jung Nam An, Jung Pyo Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Ho Jun Chin, Yon Su Kim, Dong-Sup Lee and Seung Seok Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:88

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Hemodialysis patients have high rates of sudden death, but relationships between serum electrolytes, the dialysis prescription, and intra-dialytic shifts in fluid and electrolyte with arrhythmia are uncertain.

    Authors: James A. Tumlin, Prabir Roy-Chaudhury, Bruce A. Koplan, Alexandru I. Costea, Vijay Kher, Don Williamson, Saurabh Pokhariyal and David M. Charytan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:80

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Exacerbated inflammatory response is considered one of the key elements of acute kidney injury (AKI). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in the inflammatory response an...

    Authors: Takashi Shimazui, Taka-aki Nakada, Yoshihisa Tateishi, Taku Oshima, Tuerxun Aizimu and Shigeto Oda

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:74

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of recurring thrombotic events following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Microparticles (MPs) are circulating small vesicles shed from various cel...

    Authors: Josefin Mörtberg, Kristina Lundwall, Fariborz Mobarrez, Håkan Wallén, Stefan H. Jacobson and Jonas Spaak

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:71

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Infections are the second leading cause of death and hospitalisation among haemodialysis (HD) patients. Rates of access-related bloodstream infections (AR-BSI) are influenced by patient characteristics and loc...

    Authors: Husham Mohamed, Alaa Ali, Leonard D. Browne, Nuala H. O’Connell, Liam Casserly, Austin G. Stack and Wael F. Hussein

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:68

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease and is characterized by gradual cyst growth and expansion, increase in kidney volume with an ultimate decline i...

    Authors: Kyoungmi Kim, Josephine F. Trott, Guimin Gao, Arlene Chapman and Robert H. Weiss

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:66

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Insulin resistance contributes to the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the development of kidney disease. However, it is unclear if insulin resistance independently contributes to an increased risk...

    Authors: Sarah J. Schrauben, Christopher Jepson, Jesse Y. Hsu, F. Perry Wilson, Xiaoming Zhang, James P. Lash, Bruce M. Robinson, Raymond R. Townsend, Jing Chen, Leon Fogelfeld, Patricia Kao, J. Richard Landis, Daniel J. Rader, L. Lee Hamm, Amanda H. Anderson and Harold I. Feldman

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:60

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone (MP) is commonly included in the management of severe ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV) despite limited evidence of benefit. We aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients who ha...

    Authors: Dimitrios Chanouzas, Julie Anne G. McGregor, Peter Nightingale, Alan D. Salama, Wladimir M. Szpirt, Neil Basu, Matthew David Morgan, Caroline J. Poulton, Juliana Bordignon Draibe, Elizabeth Krarup, Paula Dospinescu, Jessica Anne Dale, William Franklin Pendergraft, Keegan Lee, Martin Egfjord, Susan L. Hogan…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:58

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Protein-bound uremic toxins are associated with poor outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound sol...

    Authors: Wenji Wang, Guihua Hao, Yu Pan, Shuai Ma, Tianye Yang, Peng Shi, Qiuyu Zhu, Yingxin Xie, Shaojun Ma, Qi Zhang, Hong Ruan and Feng Ding

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:57

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The aim of this study was to assess, the efficacy and safety of add-on corticosteroids to antiretroviral therapy [ART] in patients with biopsy proven HIV associated nephropathy.

    Authors: Nicola Wearne, Charles R. Swanepoel, Maureen S. Duffield, Bianca J. Davidson, Kathryn Manning, Nicki Tiffin, Andrew Boulle, Brian L. Rayner, Priyanka Naidu and Ikechi G. Okpechi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:44

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Cystatin C (Cys C) used clinically for detecting early acute kidney injury (AKI) was reported to be associated with thyroid function. Therefore, whether the performance of Cys C is affected by thyroid hormones...

    Authors: Danqing Zhang, Lu Gao, Heng Ye, Ruibin Chi, Lin Wang, Linhui Hu, Xin Ouyang, Yating Hou, Yujun Deng, Yi Long, Weiping Xiong and Chunbo Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:41

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) remains gold standard for the treatment of localised renal cell cancer (RCC), even in case of a normal contralateral kidney. Compared to radical nephrectomy, kidney failure and ca...

    Authors: Jan Ebbing, Felix Menzel, Paolo Frumento, Kurt Miller, Bernhard Ralla, Tom Florian Fuller, Jonas Busch, Justin William Collins, Christofer Adding, Hans Helge Seifert, Peter Ardelt, Christian Wetterauer, Timm Westhoff and Carsten Kempkensteffen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:40

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2019 20:86

  16. Content type: Research article

    Hyperphosphataemia in dialysis subjects is associated with increased mortality. However cause and effect has not been proven, and the ideal phosphate target range is unknown despite KDOQI’s call for studies ov...

    Authors: Ramya Bhargava, Philip A. Kalra, Mark Hann, Paul Brenchley, Helen Hurst and Alastair J. Hutchison

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:37

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  17. Content type: Research article

    An increasing amount of evidence has demonstrated an association between an increase in the level of tumor necrosis factor superfamily 13 (TNFSF13) and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progression. We aimed...

    Authors: Hyung Ah Jo, Seung Seok Han, Sunhwa Lee, Joo Young Kim, Seung Hee Yang, Hajeong Lee, Jae Seok Yang, Jung Pyo Lee, Kwon Wook Joo, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Curie Ahn, Jin Suk Han and Dong Ki Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:33

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Data on radial access (RA) as an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI) in myocardial infarction (MI) patients are conflicting. Our aim was to assess how RA influences the incidence of AKI in MI...

    Authors: Vojko Kanic, Gregor Kompara, David Šuran, Alojz Tapajner, Franjo Husam Naji and Andreja Sinkovic

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:28

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Garlic can be considered as a useful natural herb in inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of garlic extract in lowering inflammatory markers in peritoneal dialysis ...

    Authors: Elham Zare, Amirhesam Alirezaei, Mahmood Bakhtiyari and Asieh Mansouri

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:26

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Iron deficiency is frequent in haemodialysis (HD) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and intravenous iron is an established therapy for these patients. This study assessed treatment routine, effective...

    Authors: Ashraf I. Mikhail, Staffan Schön, Sylvia Simon, Christopher Brown, Jörgen B. A. Hegbrant, Gert Jensen, Jason Moore and Lennart D. I. Lundberg

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:13

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  21. Content type: Research article

    HIV-positive persons bear an excess burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, conventional methods to assess kidney health are insensitive and non-specific for detecting early kidney injury. Urinary bio...

    Authors: Anthony N. Muiru, Michael G. Shlipak, Rebecca Scherzer, William R. Zhang, Simon B. Ascher, Vasantha Jotwani, Carl Grunfeld, Chirag R. Parikh, Derek Ng, Frank J. Palella Jr, Ken Ho, Seble Kassaye, Anjali Sharma, Mardge Cohen, Ruibin Wang, Qibin Qi…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:4

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  22. Content type: Research article

    This cluster randomised controlled trial set out to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of the “Combined Diabetes and Renal Control Trial” (C-DIRECT) intervention, a nurse-led intervention based on m...

    Authors: K. Griva, M. Rajeswari, M. Nandakumar, E. Y. H. Khoo, V. Y. W. Lee, C. G. Chua, Z. S. Goh, Y. T. D. Choong and S. P. Newman

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:2

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Most studies on obesity surgery have measured renal function using the estimated GFR. However, due to the reduction of muscle mass, and therefore creatinine that accompanies weight loss, such measures can fals...

    Authors: Ling L. Chuah, Alexander D. Miras, Laura M. Perry, Andrew H. Frankel, David J. Towey, Zahraa Al-Mayahi, William Svensson and Carel W. le Roux

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:383

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing. Obesity is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease. Several studies suggested that body mass index (BMI) could be an i...

    Authors: Changwei Wu, Amanda Y. Wang, Guisen Li and Li Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:381

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The prevalence of cognitive disorders in hemodialysis patients is twice as high as the general population, while these disorders often are undiagnosed. Timely prevention and treatment can improve their persona...

    Authors: Afshin Samaei, Monir Nobahar, Zaynab Hydarinia-Naieni, Abbas Ali Ebrahimian, Mohammad Reza Tammadon, Raheb Ghorbani and Abbas Ali Vafaei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:379

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Caffeine has been proposed, based on in vitro cultured cell studies, to accelerate progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by increasing kidney size. Since ADPKD patients are advise...

    Authors: Katelyn A. McKenzie, Mirelle El Ters, Vicente E. Torres, Peter C. Harris, Arlene B. Chapman, Michal Mrug, Frederic F. Rahbari-Oskoui, Kyongtae Ty Bae, Douglas P. Landsittel, William M. Bennett, Alan S. L. Yu and Jonathan D. Mahnken

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:378

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  27. Content type: Research article

    To assess the time to first on-study vascular thromboembolic events (VTEs) of clopidogrel (CL) or beraprost sodium (BPS) in Chinese population with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with arteriovenous fis...

    Authors: Yu Zhou, Ling Du, Bo Tu, Qiquan Lai, Xiaonan Du, Bo Xu, Fan Zhang, Mingdong Zhao, Ziming Wan and Jiajie Lai

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:376

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The impact of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) on patients with chronic renal disease is well-known. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive method that can reduce the risk of CI-...

    Authors: Ali Ghaemian, Jamshid Yazdani, Soheil Azizi, Ali A. Farsavian, Maryam Nabati, Alireza Malekrah, Mozhdeh Dabirian, Fatemeh Espahbodi, Bahareh Mirjani, Hossein Mohsenipouya and Javad Heshmatian

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:373

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The introduction of a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) device into the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is widely used. However, excessive pressure transmitted to the CRRT device i...

    Authors: Soo Jin Na, Hee Jung Choi, Chi Ryang Chung, Yang Hyun Cho, Hye Ryoun Jang, Gee Young Suh and Kyeongman Jeon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:369

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Somatostatin (SST) inhibits intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and thus may modify cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated whether en...

    Authors: A. Lianne Messchendorp, Edwin M. Spithoven, Niek F. Casteleijn, Wendy A. Dam, Jacob van den Born, Wouter F. Tonnis, Carlo A. J. M. Gaillard and Esther Meijer

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:368

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Urinary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragment level has been proposed as a biomarker of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we determine the relation between urinary mtDNA level and rate of renal functio...

    Authors: Zhongping WEI, Bonnie Ching-Ha KWAN, Kai Ming CHOW, Phyllis Mei-Shan CHENG, Cathy Choi-Wan LUK, Ka-Bik LAI, Philip Kam-Tao LI and Cheuk Chun SZETO

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:367

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Estimation of GFR (eGFR) using formulae based on serum creatinine concentrations are commonly used to assess kidney function. Physical exercise can increase creatinine turnover and lean mass; therefore, this m...

    Authors: Kassia S. Beetham, Erin J. Howden, Nicole M. Isbel and Jeff S. Coombes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:366

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Immunosuppressive treatment will predispose an idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) patient to opportunistic infections. Disease severity is one of the main concerns for making the treatment decision. Urina...

    Authors: Ziyong Tang, Yue Wang, Liyuan Tao, Yanhong Guo, Yimu Zheng and Danxia Zheng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:357

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2019 20:50

  34. Content type: Research article

    Serum anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibody was correlated with disease activity of membranous nephropathy(MN). The predictive value of antibody titer changes on immunosuppressive response remains un...

    Authors: Chao Li, Hang Li, Yu-bing Wen, Xue-mei Li and Xue-wang Li

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:354

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) assessment of kidney allografts mainly focuses on graft rejection. However, studies on delayed graft function (DGF) without acute rejection are still lacking. The aim o...

    Authors: Nordeval Cavalcante Araújo and José Hermógenes Rocco Suassuna

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:351

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  36. Content type: Study protocol

    Nephrolithiasis is a global healthcare problem with a current lifetime risk of 18.8% in men and 9.4% in women. Given the high cost of medical treatments and surgical interventions as well as the morbidity rela...

    Authors: Nasser A. Dhayat, Nicolas Faller, Olivier Bonny, Nilufar Mohebbi, Alexander Ritter, Lisa Pellegrini, Giulia Bedino, Carlo Schönholzer, Reto M. Venzin, Carina Hüsler, Irene Koneth, Rosaria Del Giorno, Luca Gabutti, Patrizia Amico, Michael Mayr, Urs Odermatt…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:349

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Albuminuria has been classically considered a marker of kidney damage progression in diabetic patients and it is routinely assessed to monitor kidney function. However, the role of a mild GFR reduction on the ...

    Authors: Antonio Mirijello, Francesca Viazzi, Paola Fioretto, Carlo Giorda, Antonio Ceriello, Giuspina T. Russo, Pietro Guida, Roberto Pontremoli and Salvatore De Cosmo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:347

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), the worldwide Public Health problem, is also one of the rising non-communicable diseases in low and middle-income countries. Its early detection and treatment using readily availa...

    Authors: Tamiru Adugna, Hailu Merga and Esayas Kebede Gudina

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:345

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Patient experience in hemodialysis (HD) is measured twice yearly in all in-center HD patients in the United States using the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (ICH ...

    Authors: Taimur Dad, Hocine Tighiouart, Eduardo Lacson Jr, Klemens B. Meyer, Daniel E. Weiner and Michelle M. Richardson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:340

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  40. Content type: Research article

    IgA vasculitis (IgAV, formerly Henoch-Schönlein purpura) is a type of systemic vasculitis. This study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features, treatment and renal outcomes of adult IgAV-related nephr...

    Authors: Xiao Huang, Jing Wu, Xiao-mei Wu, Ya-xin Hao, Cai-hong Zeng, Zhi-hong Liu and Zheng Tang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:334

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Kidney diseases have emerged as significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV subject on antiretroviral therapy (ART). In Ghana, routine follow up of HIV positive clients is by estimation of serum creati...

    Authors: Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Yaw Asante Awuku, Wonderful Alofa, Alice Charwudzi, Ebenezer Aniakwa-Bonsu, Evans Obboh and Paul Nsiah

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:333

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with diverse glomerular diseases. Characteristics of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in this setting have been little studied, and the specific feature...

    Authors: Romain ARRESTIER, Anne-Pascale SATIE, Shao-yu ZHANG, Emmanuelle PLAISIER, Corinne ISNARD-BAGNIS, Philippe GATAULT, Quentin RAIMBOURG, David BUOB, Flavia VOCILA, Anne-Elisabeth HENG, Helene FRANCOIS, Anissa MOKTEFI, Guillaume CANAUD, Marie MATIGNON, Nathalie DEJUCQ-RAINSFORD, Isabelle BROCHERIOU…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:331

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  43. Content type: Research article

    In a previous study we showed that troponin I (TnI) > 0.42 ng/mL predicted the need of dialysis in a group of 29 septic patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to confirm such finding in a...

    Authors: Daniel de Almeida Thiengo, Jorge P. Strogoff-de-Matos, Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon and Miguel Luis Graciano

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:329

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The CKD-associated decline in soluble α-Klotho (α-Klotho) levels is considered detrimental. Some studies suggest a direct induction of α-Klotho concentrations by growth hormone (GH). In the present study, the ...

    Authors: Aaltje Y. Adema, Camiel L. M. de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Joost G. Hoenderop, Martin H. de Borst, Piet M. Ter Wee, Annemieke C. Heijboer and Marc G. Vervloet

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:327

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Different methods to prevent contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) have been proposed in recent years. We performed a mixed treatment comparison to evaluate and rank suggested interventions.

    Authors: Khalid Ahmed, Terri McVeigh, Raminta Cerneviciute, Sara Mohamed, Mohammad Tubassam, Mohammad Karim and Stewart Walsh

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:323

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The risk of early death is particularly high in patients over the age of 65 presenting with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated renal vasculitis. We hypothesized that by combining disease sev...

    Authors: Dimitri Titeca-Beauport, Alexis Francois, Thierry Lobbedez, Dominique Guerrot, David Launay, Laurence Vrigneaud, Maité Daroux, Celine Lebas, Boris Bienvenu, Eric Hachulla, Momar Diouf and Gabriel Choukroun

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:317

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Fructose intake, mainly as table sugar or high fructose corn syrup, has increased in recent decades and is associated with increased risk for kidney stones. We hypothesized that fructose intake alters serum an...

    Authors: Richard J. Johnson, Santos E. Perez-Pozo, Julian Lopez Lillo, Felix Grases, Jesse D. Schold, Masanari Kuwabara, Yuka Sato, Ana Andres Hernando, Gabriela Garcia, Thomas Jensen, Christopher Rivard, Laura G. Sanchez-Lozada, Carlos Roncal and Miguel A. Lanaspa

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:315

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) has been known to be associated with cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis. However, the association between AAC and future coronary artery disease (CAD) occurrence is n...

    Authors: Hung-Chih Chen, Wei-Ting Wang, Chieh-Ning Hsi, Che-Yi Chou, Hsuan-Jen Lin, Chiu-Ching Huang and Chiz-Tzung Chang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:313

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