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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. The incidence and prevalence of older patients with kidney failure who are dependent on dialysis is increasing. However, observational studies showed limited or no benefit of dialysis on mortality in subgroups...

    Authors: Mathijs van Oevelen, Alferso C. Abrahams, Willem Jan W. Bos, Mariëlle H. Emmelot-Vonk, Simon P. Mooijaart, Merel van Diepen, Brigit C. van Jaarsveld, Anita van Eck van der Sluijs, Carlijn G. N. Voorend and Marjolijn van Buren

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:39

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. The extent to which patients with End-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a higher risk of COVID-19-related death is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the ESRD patients at increased...

    Authors: Hadith Rastad, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Gita Shafiee, Anis Safari, Ehsan Shahrestanaki, Zeinab Khodaparast, Neda Shafiabadi Hassani, Mohammad Rezaei, Morteza Nazari, Akram Zakani, Mohammad Mahdi Niksima, Mehdi Azimzadeh, Fatemeh Karimi, Ramin Tajbakhsh and Mostafa Qorbani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:33

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Weight gain (mainly gain of fat mass) occurs quickly after successful kidney transplantation and is associated with metabolic complications (alterations of glycaemic control, hyperlipidaemia). Determinants of ...

    Authors: Karine Moreau, Aurélie Desseix, Christine Germain, Pierre Merville, Lionel Couzi, Rodolphe Thiébaut and Philippe Chauveau

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:31

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics and determinant...

    Authors: Kenan Turgutalp, Savas Ozturk, Mustafa Arici, Necmi Eren, Numan Gorgulu, Mahmut Islam, Sami Uzun, Tamer Sakaci, Zeki Aydin, Erkan Sengul, Bulent Demirelli, Yavuz Ayar, Mehmet Riza Altiparmak, Savas Sipahi, Ilay Berke Mentes, Tuba Elif Ozler…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:29

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Roxadustat has been shown effective in treating patients with anemia due to chronic kidney disease. However, its long-term effect on clinical outcomes and socioeconomic burden and safety remains unclear.

    Authors: Yaling Zhang, Song Ren, Hen Xue, Amanda Y Wang, Yang Zou, Yanrong Cai, Jingdong He, Xiaoling Yuan, Feifei Jiang, Jinxi Wei, Dongmei Yang, Dong He, Shide Hu, Min Lei, Fei Deng, Jin Chen…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:28

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) mesangial deposition in pediatric minimal change disease (MCD) has been reported to be associated with steroid dependence and poor renal outcomes. However, the evidence linking the impac...

    Authors: Cheng-Wen Yang, Fan-Yu Chen, Fu-Pang Chang, Yang Ho, Bo-Sheng Wu, An-Hang Yang, Der-Cherng Tarng and Chih-Yu Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:25

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Nephropathy associated metabolic disorder induces high incidence of fragility fracture in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. As the risk factors and prognosis of fragility fracture in ESRD patients are u...

    Authors: Lihua Xie, Xuantao Hu, Wenzhao Li and Zhengxiao Ouyang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:23

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx is an early indicator of vascular damage and a potential marker of endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to assess the relationship between markers of glycocalyx damage...

    Authors: Hui Liew, Matthew A. Roberts, Alun Pope and Lawrence P. McMahon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:21

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Although patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently have instability in mean arterial pressure (MAP), no consensus exists on the target value of...

    Authors: Yaerim Kim, Donghwan Yun, Soie Kwon, Kyubok Jin, Seungyeup Han, Dong Ki Kim, Kook-Hwan Oh, Kwon Wook Joo, Yon Su Kim, Sejoong Kim and Seung Seok Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:20

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Serum and tissue-based tests using phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain containing 7A (THSD7A) are established immune biomarkers for the diagnosis of primary membranous nephropa...

    Authors: Bingileki F Lwezaula, Oluwatoyin I Ameh, Udeme E Ekrikpo, Francois CJ Botha, Ugochi S Okpechi-Samuel, Nicola Wearne, Pierre Ronco, Aminu K Bello and Ikechi G. Okpechi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:15

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The relationship between malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome (MIAS) and self-management ability has not been previously revealed even though both play an important role in the management of peri...

    Authors: Zehui Huang, Junyan Fang, Ahui Song, Yan Tong, Hai Deng, Shan Wei, Ouyang Ji, Chun Hu, Pu Li, Chunli Zhang and Yingli Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:13

    Content type: Research article

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  12. We investigated whether implementation of the end-stage renal disease prospective payment system (ESRD PPS) was associated with changes in thrombolytic therapy use and other aspects of catheter management in h...

    Authors: Nicholas S. Roetker, Haifeng Guo, Marquita R. Decker-Palmer, Yi Peng and James B. Wetmore

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:8

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Vascular calcification is a prominent feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. A recent report suggests that angiotensin II is protective to vascular calcification. Therefore, we investig...

    Authors: Kaori Takaori, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Masafumi Yamato and Takahito Ito

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:7

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) triggered by pregnancy is a rare disease caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway that occurs in approximately 1 in 25,000 pregnancies. The 311 ph...

    Authors: Anja Gäckler, Ulf Schönermarck, Vladimir Dobronravov, Gaetano La Manna, Andrew Denker, Peng Liu, Maria Vinogradova, Sung-Soo Yoon and Manuel Praga

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:5

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) is a rare hereditary disease caused by a variety of genetic mutations. Carriers of a mutation in the responsible genes are at risk of reaching end-s...

    Authors: Tamehito Onoe, Satoshi Hara, Kazunori Yamada, Takeshi Zoshima, Ichiro Mizushima, Kiyoaki Ito, Takayasu Mori, Shoichiro Daimon, Hiroaki Muramoto, Maki Shimizu, Akira Iguchi, Akihiro Kuma, Yoshifumi Ubara, Michihiro Mitobe, Hiroaki Tsuruta, Nao Kishimoto…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:1

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Climate change is a significant threat to the health of the Ghanaian people. Evidence abounds in Ghana that temperatures in all the ecological zones are rising, whereas rainfall levels have been generally redu...

    Authors: Richard Kobina Dadzie Ephraim, Christopher Amey Asamoah, Albert Abaka-Yawson, Precious Kwablah Kwadzokpui and Samuel Adusei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:542

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Blood pressure is an important and modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides valuable prognostic information in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet...

    Authors: Ruo-wei Wen, Xiao-qiu Chen, Ye Zhu, Jian-ting Ke, Yi Du, Cheng Wang and Tan-qi Lou

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:541

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in the intensive care unit (ICU). Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), known as [TIMP-2] x [IGFB...

    Authors: Lan Jia, Xiaohua Sheng, Anna Zamperetti, Yun Xie, Valentina Corradi, Shikha Chandel, Massimo De Cal, Diego Pomarè Montin, Carlotta Caprara and Claudio Ronco

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:540

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Intravenous iron is often used to treat iron deficiency anaemia in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD), but the optimal dosing regimen remains unclear. We evaluated the impact of high- versus low-dose...

    Authors: Philip A. Kalra, Sunil Bhandari, Michael Spyridon, Rachel Davison, Sarah Lawman, Ashraf Mikhail, David Reaich, Nick Pritchard, Kieran McCafferty and Jason Moore

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:539

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Heart rhythm complexity, a measure of heart rate dynamics and a risk predictor in various clinical diseases, has not been systematically studied in patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study ...

    Authors: Hongyun Liu, Ping Zhan, Jinlong Shi, Minlu Hu, Guojing Wang and Weidong Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:536

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and arterial calcification are considered at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the optimal site for measurement of arterial calcification ha...

    Authors: Ida Maria Hjelm Sørensen, Sasha Asbøll Kepler Saurbrey, Henrik Øder Hjortkjær, Philip Brainin, Nicholas Carlson, Ellen Linnea Freese Ballegaard, Anne-Lise Kamper, Christina Christoffersen, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed and Susanne Bro

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:534

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise globally and in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to its “silent” nature, many patients often present with advanced disease. At this point options for care are oft...

    Authors: Peace Bagasha, Mhoira Leng, Elly Katabira and Mila Petrova

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:531

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. The iron-based phosphate binder (PB), sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SFOH), demonstrated its effectiveness for lowering serum phosphate levels, with low daily pill burden, in clinical trials of dialysis patients wi...

    Authors: Rosa Ramos, Charles Chazot, Anibal Ferreira, Attilio Di Benedetto, Konstantin Gurevich, Astrid Feuersenger, Melanie Wolf, Hans-Jürgen Arens, Sebastian Walpen and Stefano Stuard

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:530

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The separate and combined effects of intradialytic exercise training (IET) and cold dialysis (CD) on patient thermoregulation remain unknown. This study assessed the thermoregulatory responses of hemodialysis ...

    Authors: Argyro A. Krase, Andreas D. Flouris, Christina Karatzaferi, Christoforos D. Giannaki, Ioannis Stefanidis and Giorgos K. Sakkas

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:524

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Determination of risks for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression could improve strategies to reduce progression to ESKD. The eGFR Study recruited a cohort of adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peop...

    Authors: Sandawana William Majoni, Federica Barzi, Wendy Hoy, Richard J. MacIsaac, Alan Cass, Louise Maple-Brown and Jaquelyne T. Hughes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:523

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Fluid overload is common in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and ultrafiltration (UF) is frequently required. There is lack of guidance on optimal UF practice. We aimed to explore patterns of UF pract...

    Authors: Nuttha Lumlertgul, Raghavan Murugan, Nina Seylanova, Patricia McCready and Marlies Ostermann

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:522

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Malnutrition, inflammation, and the combination thereof are predictors of poor outcomes in haemodialysis patients. Malnutrition Inflammation Complex Syndrome (MICS) is an accelerator of atherosclerosis and por...

    Authors: Puneet K. Bramania, Paschal Ruggajo, Rimal Bramania, Muhiddin Mahmoud and Francis F. Furia

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:521

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Glomerular disease patients have a high risk of infection, which contributes to the progression of disease per se and mortality, especially in those with long-term use of glucocorticoids and (or) immunosuppres...

    Authors: Yuzhang Han, Zineng Huang, Huifang Zhang, Liyu He, Lin Sun, Yu Liu, Fuyou Liu and Li Xiao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:516

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to be associated with inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis. However, the value of NLR...

    Authors: Peiyuan Li, Chenqi Xia, Peng Liu, Zhong Peng, Hong Huang, Juan Wu and Zhangxiu He

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:511

    Content type: Research article

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  30. An association of higher levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) in serum with greater mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been reported. This study examined the significance of arterial ketone body ratio (...

    Authors: Masaaki Inaba, Yasuro Kumeda, Shinsuke Yamada, Norikazu Toi, Chie Hamai, Koichi Noguchi, Eikichi Yasuda, Yutaka Furumitsu, Masanori Emoto and Yoshiteru Ohno

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:510

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), a surrogate marker for pulmonary hypertension, is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Limited data suggest improvement of RVSP with intensive...

    Authors: Michael Girsberger and Christopher T. Chan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:508

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Home haemodialysis (HHD), has shown improved clinical outcomes, as well as a better quality of life, compared to conventional in-centre haemodialysis (ICHD) but still has a global low prevalence among end-stag...

    Authors: Natalia Target, Cécile Courivaud, Pierre Antoine Michel, Salima Daoud and Michel Thomas

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:500

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health concern. In patients with CKD, interventions that support disease self-management have shown to improve health status and quality of life. At the mom...

    Authors: Hongxia Shen, Rianne van der Kleij, Paul J. M. van der Boog, Xiaoyue Song, Wenjiao Wang, Tongtong Zhang, Zhengyan Li, Xiaoping Lou and Niels Chavannes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:495

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. The link between dietary protein intake and the risk of kidney dysfunction is always a challenging issue. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total protein, plant protein, and animal prote...

    Authors: Sevda Alvirdizadeh, Emad Yuzbashian, Parvin Mirmiran, Shahryar Eghtesadi and Fereidoun Azizi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:489

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, and parathyroidectomy (PTX) is an effective treatment intervention of SHPT. However, the curative impac...

    Authors: Shaohua Chen, Kaixiang Sheng, Ying Shen, Hua Jiang, Xin Lei, Lihui Qu, Chunping Xu, Jianghua Chen and Ping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:479

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Advance Care Planning is recommended for people with end-stage kidney disease but evidence is limited. Robust clinical trials are needed to investigate the impact of advance care planning in this population. T...

    Authors: Peter O’Halloran, Helen Noble, Kelly Norwood, Peter Maxwell, Fliss Murtagh, Joanne Shields, Robert Mullan, Michael Matthews, Christopher Cardwell, Mike Clarke, Rachael Morton, Karan Shah, Trisha Forbes and Kevin Brazil

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:478

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Annual decline in kidney function is a widely applied surrogate outcome of renal failure. It is important to understand the relationships between known risk factors and the annual decline in estimated glomerul...

    Authors: Tadashi Toyama, Kiyoki Kitagawa, Megumi Oshima, Shinji Kitajima, Akinori Hara, Yasunori Iwata, Norihiko Sakai, Miho Shimizu, Atsushi Hashiba, Kengo Furuichi and Takashi Wada

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:477

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Aerobic exercise capacity is reduced in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the magnitude of changes in exercise capacity over time is less known. Our main hypothesis was that aerobic ExCap would de...

    Authors: Helena Wallin, Eva Jansson, Carin Wallquist, Britta Hylander Rössner, Stefan H. Jacobson, Anette Rickenlund and Maria J. Eriksson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:475

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a well-known immunomodulator that was recently used in immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) due to its antiproteinuric effects. We investigated the effects of HCQ in patients w...

    Authors: Chen Tang, Ji-Cheng Lv, Su-Fang Shi, Yu-Qing Chen, Li-Jun Liu and Hong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:469

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Live kidney donors (LKDs) account for nearly a third of kidney transplants in the United States. While donor nephrectomy poses minimal post-surgical risk, LKDs face an elevated adjusted risk of developing chro...

    Authors: Macey L. Levan, Madeleine M. Waldram, Sandra R. DiBrito, Alvin G. Thomas, Fawaz Al Ammary, Shane Ottman, Jaclyn Bannon, Daniel C. Brennan, Allan B. Massie, Joseph Scalea, Rolf N. Barth, Dorry L. Segev and Jacqueline M. Garonzik-Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:465

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. Although cardiovascular diseases in particular Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is associated with, high morbid-mortality in chronic hemodialysis, but its magnitude remains paradoxically unknown in sub-Sa...

    Authors: Yannick Mompango Engole, François Bompeka Lepira, Yannick Mayamba Nlandu, Yves Simbi Lubenga, Augustin Luzayadio Longo, Aliocha Nkodila, Jean-Robert Rissassy Makulo, Vieux Momeme Mokoli, Justine Busanga Bukabau, Marie-France Ingole Mboliasa, Evariste Mukendi Kadima, Cedric Kabemba Ilunga, Tresor Swambulu Mvunzi, Nazaire Mangani Nseka and Ernest Kiswaya Sumaili

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:460

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), but not FABP1 (liver-type FABP), is ectopically induced in injured glomerular endothelial cells, and urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4) level is associated with proteinuria and renal...

    Authors: Marenao Tanaka, Masato Furuhashi, Norihito Moniwa, Takuto Maeda, Hideki Takizawa, Megumi Matsumoto, Akiko Sakai, Yukimura Higashiura, Yufu Gocho, Masayuki Koyama, Yayoi Ogawa and Tetsuji Miura

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:459

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Transplantation with a diabetic donor kidney may have some benefits compared to remaining on the waitlist for selected patients. However, we found that some kidney transplant recipients have ongoing donor-tran...

    Authors: Chia-Tien Hsu, Mei-Chin Wen, Hsien-Fu Chiu, Shang-Feng Tsai, Tung-Min Yu, Cheng-Kuang Yang, Ming-Ju Wu and Cheng-Hsu Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:458

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major complication following liver resection. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for AKI after hepatic resection and whether intraoperative hypotension (IOH)...

    Authors: Pingping Liao, Shuo Zhao, Lin Lyu, Xuanlong Yi, Xiangyu Ji, Jian Sun, Yanfang Jia and Zangong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:456

    Content type: Research article

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  45. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients’ adherence to prescriptions for diet and for medications might depend on the degree to which they have hope that they will enjoy life, and that hope could vary with th...

    Authors: Noriaki Kurita, Takafumi Wakita, Yoshitaka Ishibashi, Shino Fujimoto, Masahiko Yazawa, Tomo Suzuki, Kenichiro Koitabashi, Mai Yanagi, Hiroo Kawarazaki, Joseph Green, Shunichi Fukuhara and Yugo Shibagaki

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:453

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Troponin T (TnT) is a well-known risk factor for negative outcome in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but little is known about variation over time, and the impact of clinical and dialysis specific factors. This st...

    Authors: Christian D. Peters, Krista D. Kjaergaard, Kent L. Christensen, Bo M. Bibby, Bente Jespersen and Jens D. Jensen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:452

    Content type: Research article

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  47. SLE manifestations after ESRD may be underdiagnosed and undertreated, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Whether specific symptoms persist after ESRD or a shift towards new manifestations occur...

    Authors: Maria Salgado Guerrero, Alejandra Londono Jimenez, Chrisanna Dobrowolski, Wenzhu B. Mowrey, Beatrice Goilav, Shudan Wang and Anna Broder

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:450

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (T) score is a known determinant of the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Strong evidence indicates that the components of the coagulation system closely...

    Authors: Ming Xia, Di Liu, Liang Peng, Yan Li, Haiyang Liu, Lingzhi Wu, Guochun Chen, Yu Liu and Hong Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:447

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The progression from AKI to CKD, despite being well recognised, is not completely understo...

    Authors: Anam Asad, James O. Burton and Daniel S. March

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:446

    Content type: Review

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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