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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a serious complication following cardiac surgery. Adverse outcome after cardiac surgery has been observed in the presence of elevated levels of soluble urokinase-type plasm...

    Authors: Sebastian Roed Rasmussen, Rikke Vibeke Nielsen, Rasmus Møgelvang, Sisse Rye Ostrowski and Hanne Berg Ravn

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:120

    Content type: Research article

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  2. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the final and permanent stage of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Hemodialysis (HD) is the most common treatment for CKD. To have desirable therapeutic outcomes, patients have to...

    Authors: Mansour Arad, Rasoul Goli, Naser Parizad, Davoud Vahabzadeh and Rahim Baghaei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:119

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Iron deficiency (ID) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Intravenous (IV) iron in heart failure leads to improvement in exercise capacity and improvement in quality-of-life measurements; h...

    Authors: S. Bhandari, V. Allgar, A. Lamplugh, I. Macdougall and P. A. Kalra

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:115

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is predicted to rise over the next few decades. In resource-limited settings access to central laboratory services is limited. Point-of-care (POC) urine dipstick ...

    Authors: Sean D. Currin, Mwawi S. Gondwe, Nokthula B. Mayindi, Shingirai Chipungu, Bongekile L. Khoza, Stephen Tollman, June Fabian and Jaya A. George

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:103

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common manifestation among patients critically ill with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Coronavirus 2019) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of...

    Authors: R. Lowe, M. Ferrari, M. Nasim-Mohi, A. Jackson, R. Beecham, K. Veighey, R. Cusack, D. Richardson, MPW Grocott, DZH Levett and A. Dushianthan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:92

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Chronic kidney disease as well as acute kidney injury are associated with adverse outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). However, little is known about the prognostic implications of an ...

    Authors: Dominik Kylies, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Florian Fulisch, Hatim Seoudy, Christian Kuhn, Lars Philipp Kihm, Thomas Pühler, Georg Lutter, Astrid Dempfle, Norbert Frey, Thorsten Feldkamp and Derk Frank

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:77

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Higher plasma magnesium concentrations are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The importance of plasma magnesium concentration for vascular calcificat...

    Authors: Anique D. ter Braake, Larissa P. Govers, Mieke J. Peeters, Arjan D. van Zuilen, Jack F. M. Wetzels, Peter J. Blankenstijn, Joost G. J. Hoenderop, Jeroen H. F. de Baaij and Jan A. J. G. van den Brand

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:71

    Content type: Research article

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  8. It is unclear whether faster progression of atherosclerosis explains the higher risk of cardiovascular events in CKD. The objectives of this study were to 1. Characterize the associations of CKD with presence ...

    Authors: Srinivasan Beddhu, Robert E. Boucher, Jie Sun, Niranjan Balu, Michel Chonchol, Sankar Navaneethan, Glenn M. Chertow, Raymond Townsend, William Haley, Alfred K. Cheung, Molly B. Conroy, Dominic S. Raj, Dongxiang Xu, Thomas George, Reem Yunis, Guo Wei…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:69

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Anemia is one of the common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is no systematic investigation on the prevalence of anemia in CKD patients and its relationship with the ...

    Authors: Yan Shen, Jinwei Wang, Jing Yuan, Li Yang, Fangfang Yu, Xiaolei Wang, Ming-Hui Zhao, Luxia Zhang and Yan Zha

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:64

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Acute kidney injury is common in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU). It is associated with poor patient outcomes and high healthcare resource usage. This study’s primary objective is to help identify which...

    Authors: Wen En Joseph Wong, Siew Pang Chan, Juin Keith Yong, Yen Yu Sherlyn Tham, Jie Rui Gerald Lim, Ming Ann Sim, Chai Rick Soh, Lian Kah Ti and Tsong Huey Sophia Chew

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:63

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Recent trials have suggested use of balanced crystalloids may decrease the incidence of major adverse kidney events compared to saline in critically ill adults. The effect of crystalloid composition on biomark...

    Authors: Blake E. Funke, Karen E. Jackson, Wesley H. Self, Sean P. Collins, Christina T. Saunders, Li Wang, Jeffrey D. Blume, Nancy Wickersham, Ryan M. Brown, Jonathan D. Casey, Gordon R. Bernard, Todd W. Rice, Edward D. Siew and Matthew W. Semler

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:54

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Cardiac biomarkers Troponin T (TnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and abdominal aortic calcification score (AAC) are associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients wit...

    Authors: Roosa Lankinen, Markus Hakamäki, Kaj Metsärinne, Niina Koivuviita, Jussi P. Pärkkä, Maria Saarenhovi, Tapio Hellman and Mikko J. Järvisalo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:50

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder, with renal manifestations like angiomyolipoma (AML) occurring in 70–80% of patients. AML usually cause more complications in TCS patients than in non-TSC...

    Authors: Kathrin Bausch, Christian Wetterauer, Julian Diethelm, Jan Ebbing, Daniel T. Boll, Patricia Dill, Cyrill A. Rentsch and Hans-H. Seifert

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:47

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have been reported to be associated with infectious mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Peritonitis is the most common and fatal infectious complication, resu...

    Authors: Yuqi Yang, Jingjing Da, Yi Jiang, Jing Yuan and Yan Zha

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:44

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is identified as mesangial IgA deposition and is usually accompanied by other immunofluorescence deposits. The impact of immunofluorescent features in IgAN patients, however...

    Authors: Lingzhi Wu, Di Liu, Ming Xia, Guochun Chen, Yu Liu, Xuejing Zhu and Hong Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:43

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The study aim was to establish if substitution of citrate with rt-PA for catheter lock once weekly can reduce the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI) or improve patency of tunneled h...

    Authors: Pavlina Richtrova, Jan Mares, Lukas Kielberger, Jan Klaboch, Jaromir Eiselt and Tomas Reischig

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:41

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The incidence and prevalence of older patients with kidney failure who are dependent on dialysis is increasing. However, observational studies showed limited or no benefit of dialysis on mortality in subgroups...

    Authors: Mathijs van Oevelen, Alferso C. Abrahams, Willem Jan W. Bos, Mariëlle H. Emmelot-Vonk, Simon P. Mooijaart, Merel van Diepen, Brigit C. van Jaarsveld, Anita van Eck van der Sluijs, Carlijn G. N. Voorend and Marjolijn van Buren

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:39

    Content type: Study protocol

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:113

  18. The extent to which patients with End-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a higher risk of COVID-19-related death is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the ESRD patients at increased...

    Authors: Hadith Rastad, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Gita Shafiee, Anis Safari, Ehsan Shahrestanaki, Zeinab Khodaparast, Neda Shafiabadi Hassani, Mohammad Rezaei, Morteza Nazari, Akram Zakani, Mohammad Mahdi Niksima, Mehdi Azimzadeh, Fatemeh Karimi, Ramin Tajbakhsh and Mostafa Qorbani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:33

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Weight gain (mainly gain of fat mass) occurs quickly after successful kidney transplantation and is associated with metabolic complications (alterations of glycaemic control, hyperlipidaemia). Determinants of ...

    Authors: Karine Moreau, Aurélie Desseix, Christine Germain, Pierre Merville, Lionel Couzi, Rodolphe Thiébaut and Philippe Chauveau

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:31

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:61

  20. Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics and determinant...

    Authors: Kenan Turgutalp, Savas Ozturk, Mustafa Arici, Necmi Eren, Numan Gorgulu, Mahmut Islam, Sami Uzun, Tamer Sakaci, Zeki Aydin, Erkan Sengul, Bulent Demirelli, Yavuz Ayar, Mehmet Riza Altiparmak, Savas Sipahi, Ilay Berke Mentes, Tuba Elif Ozler…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:29

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Roxadustat has been shown effective in treating patients with anemia due to chronic kidney disease. However, its long-term effect on clinical outcomes and socioeconomic burden and safety remains unclear.

    Authors: Yaling Zhang, Song Ren, Hen Xue, Amanda Y Wang, Yang Zou, Yanrong Cai, Jingdong He, Xiaoling Yuan, Feifei Jiang, Jinxi Wei, Dongmei Yang, Dong He, Shide Hu, Min Lei, Fei Deng, Jin Chen…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:28

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) mesangial deposition in pediatric minimal change disease (MCD) has been reported to be associated with steroid dependence and poor renal outcomes. However, the evidence linking the impac...

    Authors: Cheng-Wen Yang, Fan-Yu Chen, Fu-Pang Chang, Yang Ho, Bo-Sheng Wu, An-Hang Yang, Der-Cherng Tarng and Chih-Yu Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:25

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Nephropathy associated metabolic disorder induces high incidence of fragility fracture in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. As the risk factors and prognosis of fragility fracture in ESRD patients are u...

    Authors: Lihua Xie, Xuantao Hu, Wenzhao Li and Zhengxiao Ouyang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:23

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx is an early indicator of vascular damage and a potential marker of endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to assess the relationship between markers of glycocalyx damage...

    Authors: Hui Liew, Matthew A. Roberts, Alun Pope and Lawrence P. McMahon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:21

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Although patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently have instability in mean arterial pressure (MAP), no consensus exists on the target value of...

    Authors: Yaerim Kim, Donghwan Yun, Soie Kwon, Kyubok Jin, Seungyeup Han, Dong Ki Kim, Kook-Hwan Oh, Kwon Wook Joo, Yon Su Kim, Sejoong Kim and Seung Seok Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:20

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Serum and tissue-based tests using phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain containing 7A (THSD7A) are established immune biomarkers for the diagnosis of primary membranous nephropa...

    Authors: Bingileki F Lwezaula, Oluwatoyin I Ameh, Udeme E Ekrikpo, Francois CJ Botha, Ugochi S Okpechi-Samuel, Nicola Wearne, Pierre Ronco, Aminu K Bello and Ikechi G. Okpechi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:15

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The relationship between malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome (MIAS) and self-management ability has not been previously revealed even though both play an important role in the management of peri...

    Authors: Zehui Huang, Junyan Fang, Ahui Song, Yan Tong, Hai Deng, Shan Wei, Ouyang Ji, Chun Hu, Pu Li, Chunli Zhang and Yingli Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:13

    Content type: Research article

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  28. We investigated whether implementation of the end-stage renal disease prospective payment system (ESRD PPS) was associated with changes in thrombolytic therapy use and other aspects of catheter management in h...

    Authors: Nicholas S. Roetker, Haifeng Guo, Marquita R. Decker-Palmer, Yi Peng and James B. Wetmore

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:8

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:93

  29. Vascular calcification is a prominent feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. A recent report suggests that angiotensin II is protective to vascular calcification. Therefore, we investig...

    Authors: Kaori Takaori, Hirotsugu Iwatani, Masafumi Yamato and Takahito Ito

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:7

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) triggered by pregnancy is a rare disease caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway that occurs in approximately 1 in 25,000 pregnancies. The 311 ph...

    Authors: Anja Gäckler, Ulf Schönermarck, Vladimir Dobronravov, Gaetano La Manna, Andrew Denker, Peng Liu, Maria Vinogradova, Sung-Soo Yoon and Manuel Praga

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:5

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:49

  31. Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) is a rare hereditary disease caused by a variety of genetic mutations. Carriers of a mutation in the responsible genes are at risk of reaching end-s...

    Authors: Tamehito Onoe, Satoshi Hara, Kazunori Yamada, Takeshi Zoshima, Ichiro Mizushima, Kiyoaki Ito, Takayasu Mori, Shoichiro Daimon, Hiroaki Muramoto, Maki Shimizu, Akira Iguchi, Akihiro Kuma, Yoshifumi Ubara, Michihiro Mitobe, Hiroaki Tsuruta, Nao Kishimoto…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:1

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Climate change is a significant threat to the health of the Ghanaian people. Evidence abounds in Ghana that temperatures in all the ecological zones are rising, whereas rainfall levels have been generally redu...

    Authors: Richard Kobina Dadzie Ephraim, Christopher Amey Asamoah, Albert Abaka-Yawson, Precious Kwablah Kwadzokpui and Samuel Adusei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:542

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Blood pressure is an important and modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides valuable prognostic information in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet...

    Authors: Ruo-wei Wen, Xiao-qiu Chen, Ye Zhu, Jian-ting Ke, Yi Du, Cheng Wang and Tan-qi Lou

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:541

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in the intensive care unit (ICU). Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), known as [TIMP-2] x [IGFB...

    Authors: Lan Jia, Xiaohua Sheng, Anna Zamperetti, Yun Xie, Valentina Corradi, Shikha Chandel, Massimo De Cal, Diego Pomarè Montin, Carlotta Caprara and Claudio Ronco

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:540

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Intravenous iron is often used to treat iron deficiency anaemia in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD), but the optimal dosing regimen remains unclear. We evaluated the impact of high- versus low-dose...

    Authors: Philip A. Kalra, Sunil Bhandari, Michael Spyridon, Rachel Davison, Sarah Lawman, Ashraf Mikhail, David Reaich, Nick Pritchard, Kieran McCafferty and Jason Moore

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:539

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Heart rhythm complexity, a measure of heart rate dynamics and a risk predictor in various clinical diseases, has not been systematically studied in patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study ...

    Authors: Hongyun Liu, Ping Zhan, Jinlong Shi, Minlu Hu, Guojing Wang and Weidong Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:536

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and arterial calcification are considered at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the optimal site for measurement of arterial calcification ha...

    Authors: Ida Maria Hjelm Sørensen, Sasha Asbøll Kepler Saurbrey, Henrik Øder Hjortkjær, Philip Brainin, Nicholas Carlson, Ellen Linnea Freese Ballegaard, Anne-Lise Kamper, Christina Christoffersen, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed and Susanne Bro

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:534

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease is on the rise globally and in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to its “silent” nature, many patients often present with advanced disease. At this point options for care are oft...

    Authors: Peace Bagasha, Mhoira Leng, Elly Katabira and Mila Petrova

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:531

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. The iron-based phosphate binder (PB), sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SFOH), demonstrated its effectiveness for lowering serum phosphate levels, with low daily pill burden, in clinical trials of dialysis patients wi...

    Authors: Rosa Ramos, Charles Chazot, Anibal Ferreira, Attilio Di Benedetto, Konstantin Gurevich, Astrid Feuersenger, Melanie Wolf, Hans-Jürgen Arens, Sebastian Walpen and Stefano Stuard

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:530

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The separate and combined effects of intradialytic exercise training (IET) and cold dialysis (CD) on patient thermoregulation remain unknown. This study assessed the thermoregulatory responses of hemodialysis ...

    Authors: Argyro A. Krase, Andreas D. Flouris, Christina Karatzaferi, Christoforos D. Giannaki, Ioannis Stefanidis and Giorgos K. Sakkas

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:524

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Determination of risks for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression could improve strategies to reduce progression to ESKD. The eGFR Study recruited a cohort of adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peop...

    Authors: Sandawana William Majoni, Federica Barzi, Wendy Hoy, Richard J. MacIsaac, Alan Cass, Louise Maple-Brown and Jaquelyne T. Hughes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:523

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Fluid overload is common in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and ultrafiltration (UF) is frequently required. There is lack of guidance on optimal UF practice. We aimed to explore patterns of UF pract...

    Authors: Nuttha Lumlertgul, Raghavan Murugan, Nina Seylanova, Patricia McCready and Marlies Ostermann

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:522

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Malnutrition, inflammation, and the combination thereof are predictors of poor outcomes in haemodialysis patients. Malnutrition Inflammation Complex Syndrome (MICS) is an accelerator of atherosclerosis and por...

    Authors: Puneet K. Bramania, Paschal Ruggajo, Rimal Bramania, Muhiddin Mahmoud and Francis F. Furia

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:521

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Glomerular disease patients have a high risk of infection, which contributes to the progression of disease per se and mortality, especially in those with long-term use of glucocorticoids and (or) immunosuppres...

    Authors: Yuzhang Han, Zineng Huang, Huifang Zhang, Liyu He, Lin Sun, Yu Liu, Fuyou Liu and Li Xiao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:516

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to be associated with inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis. However, the value of NLR...

    Authors: Peiyuan Li, Chenqi Xia, Peng Liu, Zhong Peng, Hong Huang, Juan Wu and Zhangxiu He

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:511

    Content type: Research article

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  46. An association of higher levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) in serum with greater mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been reported. This study examined the significance of arterial ketone body ratio (...

    Authors: Masaaki Inaba, Yasuro Kumeda, Shinsuke Yamada, Norikazu Toi, Chie Hamai, Koichi Noguchi, Eikichi Yasuda, Yutaka Furumitsu, Masanori Emoto and Yoshiteru Ohno

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:510

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), a surrogate marker for pulmonary hypertension, is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Limited data suggest improvement of RVSP with intensive...

    Authors: Michael Girsberger and Christopher T. Chan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:508

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Home haemodialysis (HHD), has shown improved clinical outcomes, as well as a better quality of life, compared to conventional in-centre haemodialysis (ICHD) but still has a global low prevalence among end-stag...

    Authors: Natalia Target, Cécile Courivaud, Pierre Antoine Michel, Salima Daoud and Michel Thomas

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:500

    Content type: Study protocol

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  49. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health concern. In patients with CKD, interventions that support disease self-management have shown to improve health status and quality of life. At the mom...

    Authors: Hongxia Shen, Rianne van der Kleij, Paul J. M. van der Boog, Xiaoyue Song, Wenjiao Wang, Tongtong Zhang, Zhengyan Li, Xiaoping Lou and Niels Chavannes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:495

    Content type: Study protocol

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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