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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Glomerular disease patients have a high risk of infection, which contributes to the progression of disease per se and mortality, especially in those with long-term use of glucocorticoids and (or) immunosuppres...

    Authors: Yuzhang Han, Zineng Huang, Huifang Zhang, Liyu He, Lin Sun, Yu Liu, Fuyou Liu and Li Xiao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:516

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been reported to be associated with inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis. However, the value of NLR...

    Authors: Peiyuan Li, Chenqi Xia, Peng Liu, Zhong Peng, Hong Huang, Juan Wu and Zhangxiu He

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:511

    Content type: Research article

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  3. An association of higher levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) in serum with greater mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been reported. This study examined the significance of arterial ketone body ratio (...

    Authors: Masaaki Inaba, Yasuro Kumeda, Shinsuke Yamada, Norikazu Toi, Chie Hamai, Koichi Noguchi, Eikichi Yasuda, Yutaka Furumitsu, Masanori Emoto and Yoshiteru Ohno

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:510

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), a surrogate marker for pulmonary hypertension, is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Limited data suggest improvement of RVSP with intensive...

    Authors: Michael Girsberger and Christopher T. Chan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:508

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Home haemodialysis (HHD), has shown improved clinical outcomes, as well as a better quality of life, compared to conventional in-centre haemodialysis (ICHD) but still has a global low prevalence among end-stag...

    Authors: Natalia Target, Cécile Courivaud, Pierre Antoine Michel, Salima Daoud and Michel Thomas

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:500

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health concern. In patients with CKD, interventions that support disease self-management have shown to improve health status and quality of life. At the mom...

    Authors: Hongxia Shen, Rianne van der Kleij, Paul J. M. van der Boog, Xiaoyue Song, Wenjiao Wang, Tongtong Zhang, Zhengyan Li, Xiaoping Lou and Niels Chavannes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:495

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. The link between dietary protein intake and the risk of kidney dysfunction is always a challenging issue. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total protein, plant protein, and animal prote...

    Authors: Sevda Alvirdizadeh, Emad Yuzbashian, Parvin Mirmiran, Shahryar Eghtesadi and Fereidoun Azizi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:489

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, and parathyroidectomy (PTX) is an effective treatment intervention of SHPT. However, the curative impac...

    Authors: Shaohua Chen, Kaixiang Sheng, Ying Shen, Hua Jiang, Xin Lei, Lihui Qu, Chunping Xu, Jianghua Chen and Ping Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:479

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Advance Care Planning is recommended for people with end-stage kidney disease but evidence is limited. Robust clinical trials are needed to investigate the impact of advance care planning in this population. T...

    Authors: Peter O’Halloran, Helen Noble, Kelly Norwood, Peter Maxwell, Fliss Murtagh, Joanne Shields, Robert Mullan, Michael Matthews, Christopher Cardwell, Mike Clarke, Rachael Morton, Karan Shah, Trisha Forbes and Kevin Brazil

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:478

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Annual decline in kidney function is a widely applied surrogate outcome of renal failure. It is important to understand the relationships between known risk factors and the annual decline in estimated glomerul...

    Authors: Tadashi Toyama, Kiyoki Kitagawa, Megumi Oshima, Shinji Kitajima, Akinori Hara, Yasunori Iwata, Norihiko Sakai, Miho Shimizu, Atsushi Hashiba, Kengo Furuichi and Takashi Wada

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:477

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Aerobic exercise capacity is reduced in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the magnitude of changes in exercise capacity over time is less known. Our main hypothesis was that aerobic ExCap would de...

    Authors: Helena Wallin, Eva Jansson, Carin Wallquist, Britta Hylander Rössner, Stefan H. Jacobson, Anette Rickenlund and Maria J. Eriksson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:475

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a well-known immunomodulator that was recently used in immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) due to its antiproteinuric effects. We investigated the effects of HCQ in patients w...

    Authors: Chen Tang, Ji-Cheng Lv, Su-Fang Shi, Yu-Qing Chen, Li-Jun Liu and Hong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:469

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Live kidney donors (LKDs) account for nearly a third of kidney transplants in the United States. While donor nephrectomy poses minimal post-surgical risk, LKDs face an elevated adjusted risk of developing chro...

    Authors: Macey L. Levan, Madeleine M. Waldram, Sandra R. DiBrito, Alvin G. Thomas, Fawaz Al Ammary, Shane Ottman, Jaclyn Bannon, Daniel C. Brennan, Allan B. Massie, Joseph Scalea, Rolf N. Barth, Dorry L. Segev and Jacqueline M. Garonzik-Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:465

    Content type: Study protocol

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  14. Although cardiovascular diseases in particular Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is associated with, high morbid-mortality in chronic hemodialysis, but its magnitude remains paradoxically unknown in sub-Sa...

    Authors: Yannick Mompango Engole, François Bompeka Lepira, Yannick Mayamba Nlandu, Yves Simbi Lubenga, Augustin Luzayadio Longo, Aliocha Nkodila, Jean-Robert Rissassy Makulo, Vieux Momeme Mokoli, Justine Busanga Bukabau, Marie-France Ingole Mboliasa, Evariste Mukendi Kadima, Cedric Kabemba Ilunga, Tresor Swambulu Mvunzi, Nazaire Mangani Nseka and Ernest Kiswaya Sumaili

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:460

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), but not FABP1 (liver-type FABP), is ectopically induced in injured glomerular endothelial cells, and urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4) level is associated with proteinuria and renal...

    Authors: Marenao Tanaka, Masato Furuhashi, Norihito Moniwa, Takuto Maeda, Hideki Takizawa, Megumi Matsumoto, Akiko Sakai, Yukimura Higashiura, Yufu Gocho, Masayuki Koyama, Yayoi Ogawa and Tetsuji Miura

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:459

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Transplantation with a diabetic donor kidney may have some benefits compared to remaining on the waitlist for selected patients. However, we found that some kidney transplant recipients have ongoing donor-tran...

    Authors: Chia-Tien Hsu, Mei-Chin Wen, Hsien-Fu Chiu, Shang-Feng Tsai, Tung-Min Yu, Cheng-Kuang Yang, Ming-Ju Wu and Cheng-Hsu Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:458

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major complication following liver resection. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for AKI after hepatic resection and whether intraoperative hypotension (IOH)...

    Authors: Pingping Liao, Shuo Zhao, Lin Lyu, Xuanlong Yi, Xiangyu Ji, Jian Sun, Yanfang Jia and Zangong Zhou

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:456

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients’ adherence to prescriptions for diet and for medications might depend on the degree to which they have hope that they will enjoy life, and that hope could vary with th...

    Authors: Noriaki Kurita, Takafumi Wakita, Yoshitaka Ishibashi, Shino Fujimoto, Masahiko Yazawa, Tomo Suzuki, Kenichiro Koitabashi, Mai Yanagi, Hiroo Kawarazaki, Joseph Green, Shunichi Fukuhara and Yugo Shibagaki

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:453

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Troponin T (TnT) is a well-known risk factor for negative outcome in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but little is known about variation over time, and the impact of clinical and dialysis specific factors. This st...

    Authors: Christian D. Peters, Krista D. Kjaergaard, Kent L. Christensen, Bo M. Bibby, Bente Jespersen and Jens D. Jensen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:452

    Content type: Research article

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  20. SLE manifestations after ESRD may be underdiagnosed and undertreated, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Whether specific symptoms persist after ESRD or a shift towards new manifestations occur...

    Authors: Maria Salgado Guerrero, Alejandra Londono Jimenez, Chrisanna Dobrowolski, Wenzhu B. Mowrey, Beatrice Goilav, Shudan Wang and Anna Broder

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:450

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (T) score is a known determinant of the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Strong evidence indicates that the components of the coagulation system closely...

    Authors: Ming Xia, Di Liu, Liang Peng, Yan Li, Haiyang Liu, Lingzhi Wu, Guochun Chen, Yu Liu and Hong Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:447

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a known risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The progression from AKI to CKD, despite being well recognised, is not completely understo...

    Authors: Anam Asad, James O. Burton and Daniel S. March

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:446

    Content type: Review

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  23. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poorer outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents. Drug-eluting balloons are used for in-stent restenosis and selected ...

    Authors: Michael Jonas, Maayan Kagan, Gal Sella, Dan Haberman and Gil Chernin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:445

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Dyspepsia is a common disorder in kidney transplant recipients, and the risk of post-transplant complications is increased in candidates with upper gastrointestinal disease. We evaluated gastrointestinal lesio...

    Authors: Mehmet Usta, Alparslan Ersoy, Yavuz Ayar, Gökhan Ocakoğlu, Bilgehan Yuzbasioglu, Emrullah Düzgün Erdem and Omer Erdogan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:444

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) treated with hemodialysis (HD) experience many distressing symptoms. One frequently reported symptom is insomnia. There are unique issues about HD treatments and s...

    Authors: Mark Unruh, Daniel Cukor, Tessa Rue, Kashif Abad, Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Susan M. McCurry, Patrick Heagerty and Rajnish Mehrotra

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:443

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Although lupus nephritis (LN) is mostly characterized by glomerular involvement, tubular injury is indispensable in its pathogenesis and progression. The purpose of this study is to examine associations betwee...

    Authors: Huanhuan Zhu, Huiting Wan, Suyan Duan, Chengning Zhang, Qing Li, Simeng Liu, Lin Wu, Bo Zhang, Changying Xing and Yanggang Yuan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:442

    Content type: Research article

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  27. HIV infection affects multiple organs and the kidney is a common target making renal disease, one of the recognized complications. Microalbuminuria represents an early, important marker of kidney damage in sev...

    Authors: Thomas Kiggundu, Robert Kalyesubula, Irene Andia-Biraro, Gyaviira Makanga and Pauline Byakika-Kibwika

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:440

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Individuals of African descent are at higher risk of developing kidney disease than their European counterparts, and HIV infection is associated with increased risk of nephropathy. Despite a safe renal profile...

    Authors: Muzamil O. Hassan, Raquel Duarte, Victor O. Mabayoje, Caroline Dickens, Akeem O. Lasisi and Saraladevi Naicker

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:436

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a rare disease characterized by cystic dilatation of papillary collecting ducts. Intravenous urography is still considered the gold standard for diagnosis. We identified a coho...

    Authors: Isabella Pisani, Roberto Giacosa, Sara Giuliotti, Dario Moretto, Giuseppe Regolisti, Chiara Cantarelli, Augusto Vaglio, Enrico Fiaccadori and Lucio Manenti

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:430

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Fluctuations in serum phosphate levels increased mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. However, the impacts of serum phosphate changes in hospitalized patients remain unclear. This study aimed to test...

    Authors: Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Panupong Hansrivijit, Sorkko Thirunavukkarasu, Api Chewcharat, Juan Medaura, Michael A. Mao and Kianoush B. Kashani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:427

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Kidney disease accounts for more than 49 billion dollars in healthcare expenditures annually. Early detection and intervention may reduce the burden of disease. We describe a quality improvement project to dev...

    Authors: Melissa L. Swee, M. Lee Sanders, Kantima Phisitkul, George Bailey, Angie Thumann, Nikki Neuzil, Bharat Kumar, Amy M. J. O’Shea and Bradley S. Dixon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:424

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Anaemia is a common presenting feature among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is associated with poor clinical outcomes and quality of life. It is not clear if growth differentiation factor-15...

    Authors: Aishatu M. Nalado, Gbenga Olorunfemi, Therese Dix-Peek, Caroline Dickens, Lungile Khambule, Tracy Snyman, Graham Paget, Johnny Mahlangu, Raquel Duarte, Jaya George and Saraladevi Naicker

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:415

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in patients with end-stage kidney disease on haemodialysis. The potential clinical consequence of systematic echocardiographic assessment is however not...

    Authors: Anna Axelsson Raja, Peder E. Warming, Ture L. Nielsen, Louis L. Plesner, Mads Ersbøll, Morten Dalsgaard, Morten Schou, Casper Rydahl, Lisbet Brandi and Kasper Iversen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:413

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Frailty is independently associated with worse health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between frailty and symptom experience is not well described in ...

    Authors: A. C. Nixon, T. J. Wilkinson, H.M.L. Young, M. W. Taal, N. Pendleton, S. Mitra, M. E. Brady, A. P. Dhaygude and A. C. Smith

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:411

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The epidemiology of dialysis patients has been little studied in developing countries and economies in transition. We examined the prevalence, incidence and mortality rate of dialysis patients in Kazakhstan, v...

    Authors: Abduzhappar Gaipov, Alpamys Issanov, Kainar Kadyrzhanuly, Dinara Galiyeva, Marina Khvan, Mohamad Aljofan, Miklos Z. Molnar and Csaba P. Kovesdy

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:407

    Content type: Research article

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  36. C3-glomerulonephritis can lead to progressive renal impairment from complement-mediated glomerular injury. Incidence and outcomes of C3-glomerulonephritis are not known in the New Zealand population.

    Authors: Luke J. Sutherland and Hari Talreja

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:399

    Content type: Research article

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  37. We aimed to examine the risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 among adults with ASK from unilateral nephrectomy.

    Authors: Wen-Jun Zhang, Zi-Yi Wang, Wei-Xing Zhou, Ning-Qiang Yang, Ya Wang, Ya Tang, Xiao-Chun Zhou, Jie-Cao Dao, Yan-Ru Ma, Yan-Ping He, Xiao-Ling Wang, Wen-Ge Wang and Li Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:397

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Minimal change disease (MCD) is one of the major causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS). A confirmed MCD diagnosis mainly depends on renal biopsy at present, which is an invasive procedure with many potential risks...

    Authors: Gaofei Yan, Guanzhi Liu, Xuefei Tian, Lifang Tian, Hao Wang, Peiyao Ren, Xiaotao Ma, Rongguo Fu and Zhao Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:396

    Content type: Technical advance

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  39. Cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis (CryoGn) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was rarely reported. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical features, renal pathology findings, and prognosis in pa...

    Authors: Chao Li, Hang Li, Wei Su, Yu-bing Wen, Wei Ye, Wen-ling Ye, Jian-fang Cai, Xu-zhen Qin, Xue-mei Li and Xue-wang Li

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:395

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Hyponatremia is known to be associated with a worse patient outcome in heart failure. In cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), the prognostic role of concomitant hyponatremia is unclear. We sought to evaluate potential ...

    Authors: Rainer U. Pliquett, Katrin Schlump, Andreas Wienke, Babett Bartling, Michel Noutsias, Alexander Tamm and Matthias Girndt

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:393

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) could be used as a predictive marker of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after out-of-hospital cardiac...

    Authors: Yoon Hee Choi, Dong Hoon Lee and Jae Hee Lee

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:389

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The association between lower serum sodium levels and the clinical outcomes of insomnia patients remains unclear. We explored whether lower serum sodium is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients wi...

    Authors: Eunjin Bae, Tae Won Lee, Ha Nee Jang, Hyun Seop Cho, Sehyun Jung, Seunghye Lee, Se-Ho Chang and Dong Jun Park

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:386

    Content type: Research article

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  43. This article describes the analysis and interpretation of data relating to the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and fluoride in human bone samples obtained from cadavers of patients dying of Chronic Kidney D...

    Authors: Thalarabe Bulathge Ananda Jayalal, Sanath Thushara Chamakara Mahawithanage, Senanayaka Mudiyanselage Harshana Mahendra Kumara Senanayaka and Prasanna Bandara Dassanayaka

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:384

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Kidney disease and dialysis significantly impact cognitive function across the age spectrum. Cognitive training (CT) and/or exercise training (ET) are promising approaches to preserve cognitive function among ...

    Authors: Mara A. McAdams-DeMarco, Nadia M. Chu, Malu Steckel, Sneha Kunwar, Marlís González Fernández, Michelle C. Carlson, Derek M. Fine, Lawrence J. Appel, Marie Diener-West and Dorry L. Segev

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:383

    Content type: Study protocol

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  45. Acute kidney injury (AKI) often occurs in critically ill patients. AKI is associated with mortality and morbidity. Interventions focusing on the reduction of AKI are suggested by the Kidney Disease: Improving ...

    Authors: Jacqueline Koeze, Iwan C. C. van der Horst, Renske Wiersema, Frederik Keus, Willem Dieperink, Eline G. M. Cox, Jan G. Zijlstra and Matijs van Meurs

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:381

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Concentration of the urine is primarily regulated via vasopressin dependent aquaporin-2 water channels in the apical membrane of kidney principal cells. It is unclear whether urine concentration ability in ADP...

    Authors: M. H. Malmberg, F. H. Mose, E. B. Pedersen and J. N. Bech

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:379

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CCRT) is a frequently used modality for the support of intensive care patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Nevertheless, there are no objective criteria for the discon...

    Authors: Josefine Thomsen, Ulrik Sprogøe and Palle Toft

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:375

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management in patients with end-stage renal disease is important owing to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In clinical practice, we manage patient...

    Authors: Masamitsu Morishita, Yukio Maruyama, Masatsugu Nakao, Nanae Matsuo, Yudo Tanno, Ichiro Ohkido, Masato Ikeda and Takashi Yokoo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:370

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Glomerular diseases, a set of debilitating and complex disease entities, are related to mortality and morbidity. To gain insight into pathophysiology and novel treatment targets of glomerular disease, various ...

    Authors: Eunjeong Kang, Yaerim Kim, Yong Chul Kim, Eunyoung Kim, Nankyoung Lee, Yeonghui Kim, Soojin Lee, Seungyeup Han, Misun Choe, Jin Ho Hwang, Sunhwa Lee, Ji In Park, Jung Tak Park, Beom Jin Lim, Jung Pyo Lee, Jung Nam An…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:367

    Content type: Study protocol

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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