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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Drug induced kidney injury is a frequent adverse event which contributes to morbidity and increased healthcare utilization. Our current knowledge of drug induced kidney disease is limited due to varying defini...

    Authors: Linda Awdishu and Ravindra L. Mehta

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:124

    Content type: Review

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  2. Recent studies highlight a negative association between total bilirubin concentrations and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study evaluated the relationship between bilirubin concentr...

    Authors: Xu Li, Lei Zhang, Haibing Chen, Kaifeng Guo, Haoyong Yu, Jian Zhou, Ming Li, Qing Li, Lianxi Li, Jun Yin, Fang Liu, Yuqian Bao, Junfeng Han and Weiping Jia

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:114

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Increased plasma Urotensin II (UII) levels have been found in adults with renal diseases. Studies in children are scarce. The objective of the study is to estimate plasma UII levels in subjects with chronic ki...

    Authors: Anastasia Garoufi, Styliani Drapanioti, Antonios Marmarinos, Varvara Askiti, Andromachi J. Mitsioni, Maria Mila, Georgia Grigoriadou, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Constantinos J. Stefanidis and Dimitrios Gourgiotis

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:113

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Additional urinary biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy (DN) are needed, providing early and reliable diagnosis and new insights into its mechanisms. Rigorous selection criteria and homogeneous study population...

    Authors: Lenka Vitova, Zdenek Tuma, Jiri Moravec, Milan Kvapil, Martin Matejovic and Jan Mares

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:112

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Cytokines have been found to be the important mediators during renal graft outcome. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate the role of recipients’ IL-1 β promoter (−511) and IL-1 β exon-5 (+3954) pol...

    Authors: Mohammad Ashraf Bhat, Manzoor Ahmad Parry, Saniya Nissar, Aga Syed Sameer, Imtiyaz A. Bhat, Zafar A. Shah and Roohi Rasool

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:111

    Content type: Research article

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  6. We attempted to describe the clinical features and determine the factors associated with renal survival in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and to determine the fac...

    Authors: Hyuk Huh, Hajeong Lee, Jung Pyo Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Sohee Oh, Yun Kyu Oh, Yon Su Kim and Chun Soo Lim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:104

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Although hyperuricemia is common after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), its relationship to mortality, progressive kidney disease, or the development of end stage renal disease (ESRD) is not well-descri...

    Authors: Joseph C. Longenecker, Sana Waheed, Ghassan Bandak, Christine A. Murakami, Blaithin A. McMahon, Allan C. Gelber and Mohamed G. Atta

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:103

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The variability of visit-to-visit (VVV) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is proved as a predictor of renal function deterioration in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney...

    Authors: Chi-Hsiao Yeh, Hsiu-Chin Yu, Tzu-Yen Huang, Pin-Fu Huang, Yao-Chang Wang, Tzu-Ping Chen and Shun-Ying Yin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:99

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to glomerulonephritis (GN) are thought to be at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no study has examined whether GN directly contributes to CV r...

    Authors: Holly L. Hutton, Adeera Levin, Jagbir Gill, Ognjenka Djurdjev, Mila Tang and Sean J. Barbour

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:95

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Delta neutrophil index (DNI), representing an elevated fraction of circulating immature granulocytes in acute infection, has been reported as a useful marker for predicting mortality in patients with sepsis. T...

    Authors: In Mi Han, Chang-Yun Yoon, Dong Ho Shin, Youn Kyung Kee, Seung Gyu Han, Young Eun Kwon, Kyoung Sook Park, Mi Jung Lee, Hyung Jung Oh, Jung Tak Park, Seung Hyeok Han, Shin-Wook Kang and Tae-Hyun Yoo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:94

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a well recognized complication of cardiac surgery. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aims of our study are twofold;

     

    Authors: Keren Grynberg, Kevan R. Polkinghorne, Sharon Ford, Fiona Stenning, Thomas E. Lew, Jonathan A. Barrett and Shaun A. Summers

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:93

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Snakebite-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common community-acquired AKI in tropical countries leading to death and disability. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the occurrence of snakebite-re...

    Authors: Kyi-Phyu Aye, Vipa Thanachartwet, Chit Soe, Varunee Desakorn, Khin-Thida Thwin, Supat Chamnanchanunt, Duangjai Sahassananda, Thanom Supaporn and Visith Sitprija

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:92

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Metallothionein (MTT) is an endogenous antioxidant that can be induced by both zinc (Zn) and ischemia. In kidneys, increased MTT expression exerts a putative protective role in diabetes and hypoxia. Our goal w...

    Authors: Moritz Schanz, Lea Schaaf, Juergen Dippon, Dagmar Biegger, Peter Fritz, Mark Dominik Alscher and Martin Kimmel

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:91

    Content type: Research article

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  14. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent glomerulonephritis in many countries including Estonia. There is no specific treatment for IgAN but renoprotection is indicated when proteinuria is >1 g/day. We aime...

    Authors: Živile Riispere, Anne Kuudeberg, Elviira Seppet, Kristin Sepp, Madis Ilmoja, Merike Luman, Külli Kõlvald, Asta Auerbach and Mai Ots-Rosenberg

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:89

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron’s principal cells. In a dose-response study, we m...

    Authors: Safa Al Therwani, Jeppe Bakkestrøm Rosenbæk, Frank Holden Mose, Jesper Nørgaard Bech and Erling Bjerregaard Pedersen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:86

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In developing countries, renal specialists are scarce and physician-to-patient contact time is limited. While conventional hospital-based, physician-oriented approach has been the main focus of chronic kidney ...

    Authors: Teerayuth Jiamjariyapon, Atiporn Ingsathit, Krit Pongpirul, Kotcharat Vipattawat, Suphattra Kanchanakorn, Akhathai Saetie, Duangjit Kanistanon, Patimaporn Wongprompitak, Vinai Leesmidt, Watcharapong Watcharasaksilp, Wei Wang, Anil K. Chandraker and Kriang Tungsanga

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:83

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common in asymptomatic chronic dialysis patients and plays an important role in their poor survival. Early identification of these high-risk patients could improve treatment an...

    Authors: M. K. de Bie, M. S. Buiten, J. I. Rotmans, M. Hogenbirk, M. J. Schalij, T. J. Rabelink and J. W. Jukema

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:82

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is proposed for various extracorporeal purification techniques to overcome the risk of bleeding that might result from systemic anticoagulation. Yet, no individualized tr...

    Authors: Sébastien Kissling, Cécile Legallais, Menno Pruijm, Daniel Teta, Bruno Vogt, Michel Burnier, Eric Rondeau and Christophe Ridel

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:81

    Content type: Technical advance

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2017 18:84

  19. The early identification of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) who are at increased risk for inferior clinical outcome at the time of diagnosis might help to optimize the immunosuppressive therapy....

    Authors: Ágnes Haris, Kálmán Polner, József Arányi, Henrik Braunitzer, Ilona Kaszás, László Rosivall, Gábor Kökény and István Mucsi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:76

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Renal injury is a serious complication after cardiac surgery and therefore, early detection and much more prediction of postoperative kidney injury is desirable. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGA...

    Authors: Martin G. Friedrich, Ioannis Bougioukas, Johanna Kolle, Christian Bireta, Fawad A. Jebran, Marius Placzek and Theodor Tirilomis

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:73

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Injury to the kidney epithelial barrier is a characteristic feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Serum surfactant protein-D (SP-D), a known biomarker of damaged alveolar epithelium, is also secreted by renal ...

    Authors: Jiao Liu, Guang Li, Lianghai Li, Zhiyong Liu, Qingshan Zhou, Guirong Wang and Dechang Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:67

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a newly discovered cytokine belonging to the Interleukin-10(IL-10) family. IL-19 have indispensable functions in many inflammatory processes and also can induce the angiogenic potenti...

    Authors: Li Li, Xu-gan Jiang, Juan-Yu Hu, ZHeng-Qing Yu, Jian-Yong Xu, Fan Liu, Guang-Chun Zhao, Lei Zhang, Hui-Ming Gu, Si-Jing Zhang and Jin Meng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:65

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Infection with the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), although asymptomatic in most cases, can lead to potentially grave consequences, such as adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated...

    Authors: Rilma F. S. Santos, Gildásio C. Conceição, Márcia S. Martins, Angiolina Kraychete, Maria A. C. Penalva, Edgar M. Carvalho, Antonio Alberto Lopes and Paulo Novis Rocha

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:64

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. The clinical spectrum of IgAN varies from minor urinary abnormalities to rapidly progressive renal failure. Evaluation of th...

    Authors: Shuang Liang, Guang-Yan Cai, Zhi-Yu Duan, Shu-wen Liu, Jie Wu, Yang Lv, Kai Hou, Zuo-xiang Li, Xue-Guang Zhang and Xiang-Mei Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:63

    Content type: Research article

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  25. IgA nephropathy is the most common progressive glomerular disease to end stage renal failure worldwide. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is a selective immunosuppressant widely used in organ transplantation. The ...

    Authors: Yu-Huan Song, Guang-Yan Cai, Yue-Fei Xiao, Yi-Ping Wang, Bao-Shi Yuan, Yuan-Yuan Xia, Si-Yang Wang, Pu Chen, Shu-Wen Liu and Xiang-Mei Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:61

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The long-term association between AKI and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in an Asian population is unknown....

    Authors: Sophia Tsong Huey Chew, Roderica Rui Ge Ng, Weiling Liu, Khuan Yew Chow and Lian Kah Ti

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:60

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Pruritus is a common and frustrating symptom in hemodialysis (HD) patients and 5-D itch scale is proposed as a reliable measurement of pruritus. However, information regarding 5-D itch scale categories is curr...

    Authors: Jia-Wen Lai, Hung-Chih Chen, Che-Yi Chou, Hung-Rong Yen, Tsai-Chung Li, Mao-Feng Sun, Hen-Hong Chang, Chiu-Ching Huang, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Johannes Tschen and Chiz-Tzung Chang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:56

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is diagnosed based on postoperative serum creatinine change, but AKI models have not consistently performed well, in part due to the omission of clinically important but practically u...

    Authors: Loren E. Smith, Derek K. Smith, Jeffrey D. Blume, Edward D. Siew and Frederic T. Billings IV

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:55

    Content type: Research article

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  29. When patients experience large weight loss, muscle mass may be affected followed by changes in plasma creatinine (pCr). The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) include pCr. We hypothesised that...

    Authors: Bernt Johan von Scholten, Frederik Persson, Maria S. Svane, Tine W. Hansen, Sten Madsbad and Peter Rossing

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:52

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Minimal change disease (MCD) and primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are glomerular diseases characterized by nephrotic syndrome. Their diagnosis requires a renal biopsy, but it is an invasive pr...

    Authors: Vanessa Pérez, Dolores López, Ester Boixadera, Meritxell Ibernón, Anna Espinal, Josep Bonet and Ramón Romero

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:49

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Membranous nephropathy is a common cause of the nephrotic syndrome. Treatment with standard regimens fails to induce complete remission in most patients. We evaluated the efficacy of combination therapy with r...

    Authors: Frank B. Cortazar, David E. Leaf, Charles T. Owens, Karen Laliberte, William F. Pendergraft III and John L. Niles

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:44

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterised by renal salt wasting with hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria. It is caused by mutations in

    Authors: Pieter Du Toit van der Merwe, Megan A. Rensburg, William L. Haylett, Soraya Bardien and M. Razeen Davids

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:38

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Evidence suggests that exercise training for hemodialysis patients positively improves morbidity and mortality outcomes, yet exercise programs remain rare and are not systematically incorporated into care. We ...

    Authors: Pia Kontos, Shabbir M.H. Alibhai, Karen-Lee Miller, Dina Brooks, Romeo Colobong, Trisha Parsons, Sarbjit Vanita Jassal, Alison Thomas, Malcolm Binns and Gary Naglie

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:37

    Content type: Study protocol

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  34. During chronic kidney disease progression, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease come into play. The present study investigated the impact of indoxyl sulfate, dietary tryptophan-derived uremi...

    Authors: Tomasz W. Kamiński, Krystyna Pawlak, Małgorzata Karbowska, Michał Myśliwiec and Dariusz Pawlak

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:35

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The majority of incident hemodialysis (HD) patients initiate dialysis via catheters. We sought to identify factors associated with initiating hemodialysis with a functioning arterio-venous (AV) access.

    Authors: Narender Goel, Caroline Kwon, Teena P. Zachariah, Michael Broker, Vaughn W. Folkert, Carolyn Bauer and Michal L. Melamed

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:28

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Preclinical studies demonstrate renal proximal tubular injury after administration of some intravenous iron preparations but clinical data on renal effects of intravenous iron are sparse.

    Authors: Iain C. Macdougall, Andreas H. Bock, Fernando Carrera, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Carlo Gaillard, David Van Wyck, Yvonne Meier, Sylvain Larroque and Simon D. Roger

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:24

    Content type: Research article

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  37. In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), malnutrition may develop as renal function declines and the abdominal organs become enlarged. We investigated the relationship of intra-ab...

    Authors: Hyunjin Ryu, Hyosang Kim, Hayne Cho Park, Hyunsuk Kim, Eun Jin Cho, Kyu-Beck Lee, Wookyung Chung, Kook-Hwan Oh, Jeong Yeon Cho, Young-Hwan Hwang and Curie Ahn

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:22

    Content type: Research article

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  38. KDOQI guideline suggests that nutritional vitamin D should be supplemented in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who have vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. However, there are scarce data regarding the add...

    Authors: Paweena Susantitaphong, Siriwan Nakwan, Sadudee Peerapornratana, Khajohn Tiranathanagul, Pisut Katavetin, Nattachai Srisawat, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa and Somchai Eiam-Ong

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:19

    Content type: Research article

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  39. There were few related studies aiming to severe IgA nephropathy (IgAN) which could progress rapidly to end stage renal disease (ESRD) within ten years. To find valuable clinical or pathological factors and pro...

    Authors: Danhua Shu, Feifei Xu, Zhen Su, Ji Zhang, Chaosheng Chen, Jianna Zhang, Xiaokai Ding, Yinqiu Lv, Haixia Lin and Peipei Huang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:11

    Content type: Research article

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  40. An early sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (sepsis-AKI) biomarker is currently in needed. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is a candidate of sepsis-AKI biomarker but with different c...

    Authors: Tanaporn Panich, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Poorichaya Somparn, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Nattiya Hirankarn and Asada Leelahavanichkul

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:10

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The KDIGO Clinical Practice Guidelines for Glomerulonephritis recommended tacrolimus as an alternative regimen for the initial therapy for Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN), however, large observational ...

    Authors: Hua-Zhang Qin, Lei Liu, Shao-Shan Liang, Jing-Song Shi, Chun-Xia Zheng, Qing Hou, Ying-Hui Lu and Wei-Bo Le

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:2

    Content type: Research article

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  42. In this study, we examined the relative usefulness of serum copeptin levels as a surrogate marker of vasopressin (AVP) in adult polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by correlating it with baseline and longitudina...

    Authors: Ismail Kocyigit, Mahmut Ilker Yilmaz, Ozkan Gungor, Eray Eroglu, Aydin Unal, Ozcan Orscelik, Bulent Tokgoz, Murat Sipahioglu, Ahmet Sen, Juan Jesús Carrero, Oktay Oymak and Jonas Axelsson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:196

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Longer life expectancy is associated with an increasing prevalence of kidney disease. Aging itself may cause renal damage, but the spectrum of kidney disorders that affect elderly patients is diverse. Few stud...

    Authors: Agnieszka Perkowska-Ptasinska, Dominika Deborska-Materkowska, Artur Bartczak, Tomasz Stompor, Tomasz Liberek, Barbara Bullo-Piontecka, Anna Wasinska, Agnieszka Serwacka, Marian Klinger, Jolanta Chyl, Michal Kuriga, Robert Malecki, Krzysztof Marczewski, Bogdan Hryniewicz, Tadeusz Gregorczyk, Monika Wieliczko…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:194

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Despite growing evidence on benefits of increased physical activity in hemodialysis (HD) patients and safety of intra-dialytic exercise, it is not part of standard clinical care, resulting in a missed opportun...

    Authors: Manisha Jhamb, Mary L. McNulty, Gerald Ingalsbe, Julie W. Childers, Jane Schell, Molly B. Conroy, Daniel E. Forman, Andrea Hergenroeder and Mary Amanda Dew

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:192

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Continuous quality improvement (CQI) has been successfully applied in business and engineering for over 60 years. While using CQI techniques within nephrology has received increased attention, little is known ...

    Authors: Julie Wright Nunes, F. Jacob Seagull, Panduranga Rao, Jonathan H. Segal, Nandita S. Mani and Michael Heung

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:190

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of progression to end stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. Physical activity may reduce these risks by improving metabolic health. We teste...

    Authors: Wilson Bowlby, Leila R. Zelnick, Connor Henry, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Steven E. Kahn, Bryan Kestenbaum, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Kristina M. Utzschneider and Ian H. de Boer

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:187

    Content type: Research article

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  47. The association between psoriasis and membranous nephropathy (MN) remains largely unclear. We examined the prevalence of serum PLA2R antibody and characterized the expression of PLA2R and THSD7A in glomeruli i...

    Authors: Yong-Chun Ge, Bo Jin, Cai-Hong Zeng, Ming-Chao Zhang, Da-Cheng Chen, Ru Yin and Wei-Bo Le

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:185

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of microalbuminuria in Sickle cell anemia (SCA). Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) may...

    Authors: Karen E. Itokua, Jean Robert Makulo, François B. Lepira, Michel N. Aloni, Pépé M. Ekulu, Ernest K. Sumaili, Justine B. Bukabau, Vieux M. Mokoli, Augustin L. Longo, François M. Kajingulu, Chantal V. Zinga, Yannick M. Nlandu, Yannick M. Engole, Pierre Z. Akilimali, René M. Ngiyulu, Jean Lambert Gini…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:178

    Content type: Research article

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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