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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Sclerostin is a paracrine acting factor, which is expressed in the osteocytes and articular chondrocytes. Sclerostin decreases the osteoblast-related bone formation through the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin ...

    Authors: Piotr Kuczera, Marcin Adamczak and Andrzej Więcek

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:176

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects a growing number of people, epidemiologic data on incident CKD in the general population are scarce. Screening strategies to increase early CKD detection have been...

    Authors: Carole Ayav, Jean-Baptiste Beuscart, Serge Briançon, Alain Duhamel, Luc Frimat and Michèle Kessler

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:174

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit alterations in tryptophan metabolism, mainly via the kynurenine pathway, due to higher enzymatic activity induced mainly by inflammation. Indoles produced by gu...

    Authors: Naama Karu, Charlotte McKercher, David S. Nichols, Noel Davies, Robert A. Shellie, Emily F. Hilder and Matthew D. Jose

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:171

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of intracystic MRI features for detection of severe cyst infection that is usually refractory to antibiotic therapy alone in patients with autosomal ...

    Authors: Tatsuya Suwabe, Yoshifumi Ubara, Toshiharu Ueno, Noriko Hayami, Junichi Hoshino, Aya Imafuku, Masahiro Kawada, Rikako Hiramatsu, Eiko Hasegawa, Naoki Sawa, Satoshi Saitoh, Itsuko Okuda and Kenmei Takaichi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:170

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Experimental studies have linked peritubular capillary (PTC) loss with progression of chronic kidney disease. Minimal information on PTC in lupus nephritis (LN) has been reported. We therefore evaluated the PT...

    Authors: Sirirat Anutrakulchai, Tanin Titipungul, Thanyaluk Pattay, Putachart Mesung, Anucha Puapairoj, Dhavee Sirivongs, Cholatip Pongsakul, Prasit Futrakul, Bandit Thinkhamrop and Richard J. Johnson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:169

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Measurement of albuminuria to stratify risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not done universally in the primary care setting despite recommendation in KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) guidel...

    Authors: Alex R. Chang, Michael Evans, Christina Yule, Larissa Bohn, Amanda Young, Meredith Lewis, Elisabeth Graboski, Bethany Gerdy, William Ehmann, Jonathan Brady, Leah Lawrence, Natacha Antunes, Jamie Green, Susan Snyder, H. Lester Kirchner, Morgan Grams…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:168

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Experimental studies showed that 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency (defined as 25-hydroxy-vitamin D < 15 ng/ml) has been associated with CKD progression. Patients with IgA nephropathy have an exception...

    Authors: Xiao-Hua Li, Xin-Ping Huang, Ling Pan, Cheng-Yu Wang, Ju Qin, Feng-Wei Nong, Yu-Zhen Luo, Yue Wu, Yu-Ming Huang, Xi Peng, Zhen-Hua Yang and Yun-Hua Liao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:164

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Endothelial dysfunction is an important precursor to the development of atherosclerosis, and has been suggested to play a role in the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with end stage renal disease. End...

    Authors: Clark Kensinger, Aihua Bian, Meagan Fairchild, Guanhua Chen, Loren Lipworth, T. Alp Ikizler and Kelly A. Birdwell

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:160

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The true cause of death in severe hyponatraemic patients remains controversial. The present study aimed to analyse the relationship between comorbidity, medical management and prognosis in severe hyponatraemic...

    Authors: Thierry Krummel, Eric Prinz, Marie-Astrid Metten, Claire Borni-Duval, Dorothée Bazin-Kara, Emmanuelle Charlin, Jean-Marc Lessinger and Thierry Hannedouche

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:159

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Correction of metabolic acidosis (MA) with nutritional therapy or bicarbonate administration is widely used in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, it is unknown whether these interventions reduce i...

    Authors: Antonio Bellasi, Lucia Di Micco, Domenico Santoro, Stefania Marzocco, Emanuele De Simone, Mario Cozzolino, Luca Di Lullo, Pasquale Guastaferro and Biagio Di Iorio

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:158

    Content type: Research article

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  11. It is known that continuous venonenous hemofiltration (CVVH) does not affect the plasma level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. However, because of th...

    Authors: Xingui Dai, Tao Li, Zhenhua Zeng, Chunlai Fu, Shengbiao Wang, Yeping Cai and Zhongqing Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:154

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and cardiovascular diseases. However, this does not infer a causal relationship between the two. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)...

    Authors: Yong-Muh Ng, Soo-Kun Lim, Pei-San Kang, Khairul Azmi Abdul Kadir and Mei-Ling Sharon Tai

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:151

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Researchers have developed several equations to predict glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, there are scarcely any studies performed to discern the best eq...

    Authors: Meixue Chen, Jumei Xia, Guangchang Pei, Ying Zhang, Shuting Wu, Yushuang Qin, Yuanjun Deng, Shuiming Guo, Yanyan Guo, Gang Xu and Min Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:150

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The current standard for induction phase treatment of lupus nephritis is steroid combined with mycophenolate mofetil or pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVC). The lowest dose of IVC recommended for inductio...

    Authors: Mahesh R. Sigdel, Mukunda P. Kafle and Dibya Singh Shah

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:145

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25[OH]D) deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral ergocalciferol supplementation on requirement o...

    Authors: Gaurav Agarwal, Padam Hirachan, Jonathan Gelfond, Paolo Fanti, Claudia Hura and Shweta Bansal

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:144

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is often comorbid with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) has also been found to increase risk for CVD. The goal of the present study...

    Authors: Hao Shen, Yan Xu, Jingfen Lu, Chunfang Ma, Yadong Zhou, Qiong Li, Xu Chen, Ao Zhu and Guorong Shen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:143

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 is used on-label in Asian countries to slow renal disease progression in patients with progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, two multina...

    Authors: Gerald Schulman, Tomas Berl, Gerald J. Beck, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Eberhard Ritz, Miho Shimizu, Yuko Shobu and Mami Kikuchi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:141

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Information on acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly hospitalized patients is limited. This study aims to assess the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in elderly Chinese patients.

    Authors: Shuwang Ge, Sheng Nie, Zhangsuo Liu, Chunbo Chen, Yan Zha, Jing Qian, Bicheng Liu, Siyuan Teng, Anping Xu, Wei Bin, Xin Xu and Gang Xu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:136

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in western countries. The combination of both increases the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), cardiovascular events and all-cau...

    Authors: Jean-Michel Halimi, Dominique Joly, Christian Combe, Gabriel Choukroun, Bertrand Dussol, Jean-Pierre Fauvel, Stéphane Quéré and Béatrice Fiquet

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:135

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Hypertension and proteinuria are critically involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Despite treatment with renin angiotensin system inhibition, kidney function declines in many patients. Aldoste...

    Authors: Gemma Currie, Alison H. M. Taylor, Toshiro Fujita, Hiroshi Ohtsu, Morten Lindhardt, Peter Rossing, Lene Boesby, Nicola C. Edwards, Charles J. Ferro, Jonathan N. Townend, Anton H. van den Meiracker, Mohammad G. Saklayen, Sonia Oveisi, Alan G. Jardine, Christian Delles, David J. Preiss…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:127

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Dietary treatment is helpful in CKD patients, but nutritional interventions are scarcely implemented. The main concern of the renal diets is its feasibility with regards to daily clinical practice especially i...

    Authors: Adamasco Cupisti, Claudia D’Alessandro, Biagio Di Iorio, Anna Bottai, Claudia Zullo, Domenico Giannese, Massimiliano Barsotti and Maria Francesca Egidi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:124

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Restriction of dietary sodium is routinely recommended for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether or not sodium intake is associated with the progression of CKD and mortality remains controversial...

    Authors: Andrea Mazarova, Amber O. Molnar, Ayub Akbari, Manish M. Sood, Swapnil Hiremath, Kevin D. Burns, Timothy O. Ramsay, Ranjeeta Mallick, Gregory A. Knoll and Marcel Ruzicka

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:123

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Hemodiafiltration with on-line endogenous reinfusion (HFR) is an extracorporeal dialytic method that combines diffusion, convection and adsorption. HFR-Supra (HFR-S) is a second-generation system with increase...

    Authors: Simonetta Palleschi, Paolo M. Ghezzi, Giuseppe Palladino, Barbara Rossi, Marino Ganadu, Domenica Casu, Maria Cossu, Giovanni Mattana, Antonio Maria Pinna, Bruno Contu, Tonina Ghisu, Alessandro Monni, Luana Gazzanelli, Maria Cristina Mereu, Franco Logias, Mario Passaghe…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:120

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Despite the growing incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) worldwide, there is little data on the burden and outcomes of AKI in intensive care unit (ICU) in low resource settings. The present study assessed th...

    Authors: Angèle Masewu, Jean-Robert Makulo, François Lepira, Eric Bibonge Amisi, Ernest Kiswaya Sumaili, Justine Bukabau, Vieux Mokoli, Augustin Longo, Yannick Nlandu, Yannick Engole, Cedric Ilunga, Alphonse Mosolo, Alex Ngalala, Justin Kazadi, Richard Mvuala, Jackson Athombo…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:118

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Until now, no long-term studies relating serum albumin level to mortality rate in prevalent haemodialysis (HD) patients have been conducted. We aimed to examine the association between serum albumin level and ...

    Authors: Jin-Bor Chen, Ben-Chung Cheng, Cheng-Hong Yang and Moi-Sin Hua

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:117

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The clinic-pathological features and outcomes of Chinese patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-positive eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) and renal involvement have no...

    Authors: Yinghua Chen, Yuemei Ding, Zhengzhao Liu, Haitao Zhang, Zhihong Liu and Weixin Hu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:101

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 3–7 % of patients admitted to the hospital and approximately 25–30 % of patients in the intensive care unit. RIFLE, a newly developed international consensus classification fo...

    Authors: Richard K. D. Ephraim, Kwame O. Darkwah, Samuel A. Sakyi, Mabel Ephraim, Enoch O. Antoh and Prince Adoba

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:99

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Diabetic kidney disease, a global health issue, remains associated with high morbidity and mortality. Previous research has shown that multidisciplinary management of chronic disease can improve patient outcom...

    Authors: Nancy Helou, Dominique Talhouedec, Maya Shaha and Anne Zanchi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:88

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are commonly used for the treatment of anemia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients often lack an understanding of the potent...

    Authors: Lauren B. Beach, Marcus Wild, Gowri Ramachandran, H. Omer Ikizler and Kerri L. Cavanaugh

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:86

    Content type: Study protocol

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  30. Impairment in glomerular endothelial function likely plays a major role in the development of albuminuria and CKD progression. Glomerular endothelial dysfunction may reflect systemic microvascular dysfunction,...

    Authors: Stephen L. Seliger, Shabnam Salimi, Valerie Pierre, Jamie Giffuni, Leslie Katzel and Afshin Parsa

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:82

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Although elevated body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of better clinical outcomes in dialysis patients, the evidence in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) is conflicting. Clinical measures of central o...

    Authors: Emma Davis, Katrina Campbell, Glenda Gobe, Carmel Hawley, Nicole Isbel and David W. Johnson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:74

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Functional impairment is associated with adverse outcomes in older people, as well as in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics associated with func...

    Authors: Maurizio Bossola, Enrico Di Stasio, Manuela Antocicco, Gilda Pepe, Luigi Tazza, Giuseppe Zuccalà and Alice Laudisio

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:72

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Replacing carbohydrate with protein acutely increases glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but is associated with faster, long-term kidney disease progression. The effects of carbohydrate type (i.e. glycemic index...

    Authors: Stephen P. Juraschek, Alex R. Chang, Lawrence J. Appel, Cheryl A. M. Anderson, Deidra C. Crews, Letitia Thomas, Jeanne Charleston and Edgar R. Miller III

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:70

    Content type: Research article

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  34. There is emerging evidence that exercise training could positively impact several of the cardiovascular risk factors associated with sudden cardiac death amongst patients on haemodialysis. The primary aim of t...

    Authors: M. P. M. Graham-Brown, D. S. March, D. R. Churchward, H. M. L. Young, M. Dungey, S. Lloyd, N. J. Brunskill, A. C. Smith, G. P. McCann and J. O. Burton

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:69

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. Glycemic variability (GV) creates challenges to glycemic control and may be an independent marker for unfavorable outcome in management of patients with diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the eff...

    Authors: Fang Wei, Xiaolin Sun, Yingxin Zhao, Hua Zhang, Yutao Diao and Zhendong Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:67

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Little is known about practice patterns of anti-diabetic therapy in the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and correlates with glyc...

    Authors: Martin Busch, Jennifer Nadal, Matthias Schmid, Katharina Paul, Stephanie Titze, Silvia Hübner, Anna Köttgen, Ulla T. Schultheiss, Seema Baid-Agrawal, Johan Lorenzen, Georg Schlieper, Claudia Sommerer, Vera Krane, Robert Hilge, Jan T. Kielstein, Florian Kronenberg…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:59

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a life-threatening illness and leads to multi-organ dysfunction including acute kidney injury (AKI). The clinical significance of abnormal electrolytes and renal outcomes in ESH...

    Authors: Bancha Satirapoj, Suramanat Kongthaworn, Panbubpa Choovichian and Ouppatham Supasyndh

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:55

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Health-care for co-morbid diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often sub-optimal. To improve health-care, we explored the perspectives of general practitioners (GPs) and tertiary health-care profession...

    Authors: Clement Lo, Dragan Ilic, Helena Teede, Greg Fulcher, Martin Gallagher, Peter G Kerr, Kerry Murphy, Kevan Polkinghorne, Grant Russell, Timothy Usherwood, Rowan Walker and Sophia Zoungas

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:50

    Content type: Research article

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  39. This study aimed to investigate renal outcomes and their predictors in biopsy-proven hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HN) patients and to compare clinico-pathological characteristics and prognoses between benign ...

    Authors: Shaoshan Liang, Weibo Le, Dandan Liang, Hao Chen, Feng Xu, Huiping Chen, Zhihong Liu and Caihong Zeng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:42

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Current first-line anti-proteinuric treatments for nephrotic syndrome (NS) do not produce an effective response in all patients and are not tolerated by some patients. Additional effective and tolerable treatm...

    Authors: Arvind Madan, Snezana Mijovic-Das, Ana Stankovic, Geoffrey Teehan, Amber S. Milward and Anupa Khastgir

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:37

    Content type: Research article

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  41. To investigate the predictive value of decreased urine output based on the Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure of kidney function, Loss of kidney function and End-stage renal disease (RIFL...

    Authors: Aldjia Hocine, Pierre Defrance, Jacques Lalmand, Christian Delcour, Patrick Biston and Michaël Piagnerelli

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:36

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Anemia is common in diabetic patients and increases morbidity and mortality, but its burden has been less well characterized in sub-Saharan Africans. We determined the prevalence of anemia and investigated the...

    Authors: Vitalis F. Feteh, Simeon-Pierre Choukem, Andre-Pascal Kengne, Daniel N. Nebongo and Marcelin Ngowe-Ngowe

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:29

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The pathogenesis of progressive renal insufficiency in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is unclear. Evidence from experimental models of ADPKD suggests that elevated endothelin-1 (ET-1) dri...

    Authors: Rupesh Raina, Linda Lou, Bruce Berger, Beth Vogt, Angelique Sao-Mai Do, Robert Cunningham, Pauravi Vasavada, Karin Herrmann, Katherine Dell and Michael Simonson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:22

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Many metabolic changes develop in patients with chronic kidney disease which often necessitate frequent biochemical analysis of blood. Saliva analysis as an alternative to blood has many advantages. The aims o...

    Authors: Taye Jemilat Lasisi, Yemi Raheem Raji and Babatunde Lawal Salako

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:10

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The patterns, performance characteristics, and yield of diagnostic tests ordered for the evaluation of acute kidney injury (AKI) have not been rigorously evaluated.

    Authors: David E. Leaf, Anand Srivastava, Xiaoxi Zeng, Gearoid M. McMahon, Heather E. Croy, Mallika L. Mendu, Allen Kachalia and Sushrut S. Waikar

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:9

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Baseline serum creatinine (SCr) level is frequently not measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various methods of baseline SCr determination measurement on accura...

    Authors: Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Andrew M. Harrison, Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai, Patompong Ungprasert, Narat Srivali, Abbasali Akhoundi and Kianoush B. Kashani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2016 17:6

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Acute kidney injury is frequently observed at the intensive care unit, after surgery, and after toxic drug administration. A rise in serum creatinine and a fall in urine output are consequences of much earlier...

    Authors: Sahra Pajenda, Aysegül Ilhan-Mutlu, Matthias Preusser, Sebastian Roka, Wilfred Druml and Ludwig Wagner

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:206

    Content type: Research article

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  48. The database of a major regional health insurer was employed to identify the number and frequency of covered patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We then examined the characteristics of their care as de...

    Authors: Pradeep Arora, Peter L. Elkin, Joseph Eberle, J. James Bono, Laura Argauer, Brian M. Murray, Raghu Ram and Rocco C. Venuto

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:199

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Accurate measurement of renal function in cirrhotic patients is still challenging. To find the best test for the determination of the true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cirrhotic patients this study pros...

    Authors: Elisabeth Krones, Peter Fickert, Sabine Zitta, Stefan Neunherz, Katharina Artinger, Gilbert Reibnegger, Franziska Durchschein, Doris Wagner, Tatjana Stojakovic, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Günter Fauler, Rudolf Stauber, Gernot Zollner, Daniela Kniepeiss and Alexander R. Rosenkranz

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:196

    Content type: Research article

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  50. HIV infection is associated with increased risk of renal dysfunction, including tubular dysfunction (TD) related to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is becoming available for A...

    Authors: David R. Chadwick, Fred S. Sarfo, Elaine S. M. Kirk, Dorcas Owusu, George Bedu-Addo, Victoria Parris, Ann Lorraine Owusu and Richard Phillips

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:195

    Content type: Research article

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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