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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Fructose acutely raises serum uric acid in normal subjects, but the effect in subjects with metabolic syndrome or subjects with chronic kidney disease is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes i...

    Authors: Rafał Donderski, Ilona Miśkowiec-Wiśniewska, Marek Kretowicz, Magdalena Grajewska, Jacek Manitius, Anna Kamińska, Roman Junik, Joanna Siódmiak, Anna Stefańska, Grażyna Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Agnieszka Pluta, Miguel Lanaspa and Richard J Johnson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:68

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Primary care providers do not routinely follow guidelines for the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Multidisciplinary efforts may improve care for patients with chronic disease. Pharmacist ba...

    Authors: Danielle Cooney, Helen Moon, Yang Liu, Richard Tyler Miller, Adam Perzynski, Brook Watts and Paul E Drawz

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:56

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The last decade has witnessed considerable improvement in dialysis technology and changes in clinical management of patients in peritoneal dialysis (PD) with a significant impact on long term clinical outcomes...

    Authors: Gianluigi Zaza, Carlo Rugiu, Alessandra Trubian, Simona Granata, Albino Poli and Antonio Lupo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:53

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Urinary density (UD) has been routinely used for decades as a surrogate marker for urine osmolality (Uosm). We asked if UD can accurately estimate Uosm both in healthy subjects and in different clinical scenarios...

    Authors: Ana Carolina P Souza, Roberto Zatz, Rodrigo B de Oliveira, Mirela A R Santinho, Marcia Ribalta, João E Romão Jr and Rosilene M Elias

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:46

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Glomerulonephritis is one of the most severe complications of lupus, a systemic disease with multi-organ involvement, with tissue damage produced mainly by complement activation. As a result of this activation...

    Authors: Pilar Nozal, Sofía Garrido, Jorge Martínez-Ara, María Luz Picazo, Laura Yébenes, Rita Álvarez-Doforno, Sheila Pinto, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba and Margarita López-Trascasa

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:40

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Cool dialysate is often recommended for prevention of intra-dialytic hypotensive episodes in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, its effect on toxin removal is not studied. It is known that inter-...

    Authors: Vaibhav Maheshwari, Titus Lau, Lakshminarayanan Samavedham and Gade P Rangaiah

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:25

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcome in critically ill children. While data extracted from retrospective study of pediatric populations demonstrate a high incidence of AKI, the literature ...

    Authors: Rajit K Basu, Ahmad Kaddourah, Tara Terrell, Theresa Mottes, Patricia Arnold, Judd Jacobs, Jennifer Andringa and Stuart L Goldstein

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:24

    Content type: Study protocol

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  8. The role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in sepsis is still debated. We hypothesized that in sepsis, the performance of serum(s) and ur...

    Authors: Jill Vanmassenhove, Griet Glorieux, Norbert Lameire, Eric Hoste, Annemieke Dhondt, Raymond Vanholder and Wim Van Biesen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:18

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Irisin, an exercise induced myokine, has broad implications for metabolism and energy homeostasis. Available evidence about the association of serum irisin with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited.

    Authors: Shuyu Yang, Fangsen Xiao, Lingling Pan, Huijie Zhang, Zhimin Ma, Suhuan Liu, Yongwen Liu, Wei Zhang, Xin Zeng, Changqin Liu, Xiaoying Li, Xuejun Li and Zhibin Li

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:16

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Nephrotoxicity due to drugs especially beta lactams and cephalosporins has been well recognised. Cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin that is widely prescribed with few severe adverse reactions report...

    Authors: Kathy Mac, Ruchir Chavada, Sharon Paull, Kenneth Howlin and Jeffrey Wong

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:15

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Kimura's disease (KD) is a slowly progressing rare, benign inflammatory disorder of the soft tissues. It typically presents as subcutaneous tumor-like nodules, located most frequently in the head and neck regi...

    Authors: Sheng-lang Zhu, Peng-fei Wei, Jie-hui Chen, Zhen-fu Zhao, Qian-na Xu and Ling Ye

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:10

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Urinary albumin can be measured in 24 h or spot samples. The 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate is considered the gold standard, but is cumbersome to collect. Instead, often an overnight sample is collected, ...

    Authors: Peter Fagerstrom, Gerd Sallsten, Magnus Akerstrom, Borje Haraldsson and Lars Barregard

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2015 16:8

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Although most outpatients are relatively healthy, many have chronic renal insufficiency, and high override rates for suggestions on renal dosing have been observed. To better understand the override of renal d...

    Authors: Insook Cho, Sarah P Slight, Karen C Nanji, Diane L Seger, Nivethietha Maniam, Patricia C Dykes and David W Bates

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:200

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Excess extracellular volume is a major clinical problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether the extracellular volume status is associated with disease progression is unclear. We inv...

    Authors: Reibin Tai, Yasushi Ohashi, Sonoo Mizuiri, Atsushi Aikawa and Ken Sakai

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:189

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Impairments of health related quality of life (HRQoL) are frequently observed in Fabry disease (FD) and are known to be related to neuropathic pain and cardiovascular events. This study aimed to explore the ro...

    Authors: Martin Wagner, Johannes Krämer, Elisabeth Blohm, Dorothee Vergho, Frank Weidemann, Frank Breunig and Christoph Wanner

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:188

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Only a subset of patients who enter stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) progress to stage 4. Identifying which patients entering stage 3 are most likely to progress could improve outcomes, by allowing more ap...

    Authors: Herbert S Chase, Jamie S Hirsch, Sumit Mohan, Maya K Rao and Jai Radhakrishnan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:187

    Content type: Research article

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  17. This study aimed to compare the changes in kidney function and the association of tumor size and renal outcomes between patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and those...

    Authors: Chang Seong Kim, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Sun-Seog Kweon and Soo Wan Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:181

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Type 2 diabetes is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease, which substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. This Phase IIb safety study (AleNephro) in patients with stage 3 c...

    Authors: Luis Ruilope, Markolf Hanefeld, A Michael Lincoff, Giancarlo Viberti, Sylvie Meyer-Reigner, Nadejda Mudie, Dominika Wieczorek Kirk, Klas Malmberg and Matthias Herz

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:180

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In the current acute kidney injury (AKI) definition, the urine output (UO) criterion does not specify which body weights (BW), i.e. actual (ABW) versus ideal (IBW), should be used to diagnose and stage AKI, le...

    Authors: Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Abbasali Akhoundi, Adil H Ahmed and Kianoush B Kashani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:176

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Although intraperitoneal surgery is a major operation associated with postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), the incidence, risk factors, and long-term renal outcome are not well known. We aimed to determine...

    Authors: Eunjung Cho, Sun-Chul Kim, Myung-Gyu Kim, Sang-Kyung Jo, Won-Yong Cho and Hyoung-Kyu Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:169

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Early graft thrombosis and bleeding complications remain important causes of early graft loss following kidney transplantation in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Anti-β2-glycoprotein I IgG is a diseas...

    Authors: Tadashi Sofue, Yushi Hayashida, Taiga Hara, Kazuyo Kawakami, Nobufumi Ueda, Yoshio Kushida, Masashi Inui, Hiroaki Dobashi, Yoshiyuki Kakehi and Masakazu Kohno

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:167

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Because of the deceased donor organ shortage, more kidney patients are considering whether to receive kidneys from family and friends, a process called living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Although Blac...

    Authors: Amy D Waterman, Mark L Robbins, Andrea L Paiva, John D Peipert, Crystal S Kynard-Amerson, Christina J Goalby, LaShara A Davis, Jessica L Thein, Emily A Schenk, Kari A Baldwin, Stacy L Skelton, Nicole R Amoyal and Leslie A Brick

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:166

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. This study aimed to measure the serum soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) levels in hypertensive patients with/without asymptomatic organ damage (...

    Authors: Ihsan Ates, Nihal Özkayar, Fatma Akyel, Canan Topcuoglu, Serdar Akyel, A Nurdan Barça and Fatih Dede

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:159

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Fabry’s disease is a rare X-linked, hereditary lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is characterized by the involvement of the resp...

    Authors: Hironari Hanaoka, Akinori Hashiguchi, Konosuke Konishi, Tomohiro Ishii and Masataka Kuwana

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:157

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. Proteasome inhibitors are a relatively new class of chemotherapeutic agents. Bortezomib is the first agent of this class and is currently being used for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, recent repor...

    Authors: Liliane Hobeika, Sally E Self and Juan Carlos Q Velez

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:156

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  26. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is public health concern even in Asian countries. TRK-100STP, a sustained release tablet of an orally-active prostacyclin analogue, beraprost sodium, is suggested to suppress worse...

    Authors: Hidetomo Nakamoto, Toshiro Fujita, Hideki Origasa, Masanao Isono, Hajimu Kurumatani, Kiyonobu Okada, Hiroyuki Kanoh, Takashi Kiriyama and Shunsuke Yamada

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:153

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  27. While chronic renal damage is a condition with low-grade inflammation, the potential role of inflammation in kidney disease as a marker of cardiovascular damage is of current interest. This study analyzed the ...

    Authors: Maria Udeanu, Giordano Guizzardi, Giuseppe Di Pasquale, Antonio Marchetti, Francesca Romani, Vittorio Dalmastri, Irene Capelli, Lucia Stalteri, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Paola Rucci and Gaetano La Manna

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:152

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Weight gain and obesity are common after kidney transplantation, particularly during the first year. Obesity is a risk factor for the development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation, and is associated ...

    Authors: Kristin J Ryan, Jessie M Segedin Casas, Laura E Mash, Sandra L McLellan, Lyn E Lloyd, James W Stinear, Lindsay D Plank and Michael G Collins

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:148

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  29. Expression and/or excretion of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its co-receptor Klotho are altered in patients with end-stage renal disease. The possibility that the FGF23/α-Klotho system mediates the a...

    Authors: Michishige Ozeki, Shu-ichi Fujita, Shun Kizawa, Hideaki Morita, Koichi Sohmiya, Masaaki Hoshiga and Nobukazu Ishizaka

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:147

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The use of herbal medicine may be a risk factor for the development of kidney injury, as it has been reported to cause various renal syndromes. Dioscorea quinqueloba is a medicinal herb that is used as an alterna...

    Authors: Ha Yeon Kim, Sung Sun Kim, Soo Hyeon Bae, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma and Soo Wan Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:143

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  31. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a glomerular scarring disease diagnosed mostly by kidney biopsy. Since there is currently no diagnostic test that can accurately predict steroid responsiveness in F...

    Authors: Shiva Kalantari, Mohsen Nafar, Dorothea Rutishauser, Shiva Samavat, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Hongqian Yang and Roman A Zubarev

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:141

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Effective interventions to improve immunosuppressive medication adherence among adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients are desperately needed. This paper describes the aims, design, and method...

    Authors: Bethany J Foster, Ahna Pai, Huaqing Zhao and Susan Furth

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:139

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  33. A translational study in renal transplantation suggested YKL-40, a chitinase 3-like-1 gene product, plays an important role in acute kidney injury (AKI) and repair, but data are lacking about this protein in u...

    Authors: Isaac E Hall, Edward P Stern, Lloyd G Cantley, Jack A Elias and Chirag R Parikh

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:133

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Poor sleep quality, a novel risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The association between poor sleep quality and cardiovascular damage...

    Authors: Jun Zhang, Cheng Wang, Wenyu Gong, Hui Peng, Ying Tang, Cui Cui Li, Wenbo Zhao, Zengchun Ye and Tanqi Lou

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:131

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The risk of cardiovascular disease is tremendously high in dialysis patients. Dialysis patients treated with vitamin D analogs show decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with untreated pati...

    Authors: Ditte Hansen, Knud Rasmussen, Lars M Rasmussen, Helle Bruunsgaard and Lisbet Brandi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:130

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have a high rate of mortality and specifically an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Impaired cardiac autonomic tone is associated with elevated risk of...

    Authors: Michelle C Mann, Derek V Exner, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, David A Hanley, Tanvir C Turin, Jennifer M MacRae and Sofia B Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:129

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and (IA) are both used to clear antibody. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of DFPP in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease are unc...

    Authors: Yi-yan Zhang, Zheng Tang, Dong-mei Chen, De-hua Gong, Da-xi Ji and Zhi-hong Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:128

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Iron deficiency is common in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients and, on occasion, requires parenteral iron therapy. We investigated the effect of intravenous iron repletion on platelet count...

    Authors: Lenar Yessayan, Jerry Yee, Gary Zasuwa, Stan Frinak and Anatole Besarab

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:119

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Health-related quality of life is a crucial outcome for the chronic kidney disease population, the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) questionnaire is commonly used as an integral part of clinical evaluati...

    Authors: Xingjuan Tao, Susan Ka Yee Chow and Frances Kam Yuet Wong

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:115

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) develop immune-complex induced diseases such as nephropathy only rarely, presumably because their immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentration is low. We encountered a pa...

    Authors: Keisuke Sugimoto, Hitomi Nishi, Tomoki Miyazawa, Norihisa Wada, Akane Izu, Takuji Enya, Mitsuru Okada and Tsukasa Takemura

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:109

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  41. Emerging evidence suggests modulating the microbiota in the large bowel of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) through pre- and/probiotic supplementation may inhibit the development of key nephrovascula...

    Authors: Megan Rossi, David W Johnson, Mark Morrison, Elaine Pascoe, Jeff S Coombes, Josephine M Forbes, Brett C McWhinney, Jacobus PJ Ungerer, Goce Dimeski and Katrina L Campbell

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:106

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  42. Adjudication of patient outcomes is a common practice in medical research and clinical trials. However minimal data exists on the adjudication process in the setting of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as well as the...

    Authors: Jay L Koyner, Amit X Garg, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Steven G Coca, Lloyd G Cantley, Aldo Peixoto, Cary S Passik, Kwangik Hong and Chirag R Parikh

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:105

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Renal handling of sodium and water is abnormal in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormal activity of the aquaporin-2 water channels (AQP2), the sodium-pota...

    Authors: Janni M Jensen, Frank H Mose, Anna-Ewa O Kulik, Jesper N Bech, Robert A Fenton and Erling B Pedersen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:101

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In developing countries, accessibility to specialists, and physician to patient contact time is limited. In Thailand, A unique community health service is provided by subdistrict health care officers and Villa...

    Authors: Teerayuth Jiamjariyaporn, Atiporn Ingsathit, Kriang Tungsanga, Chatri Banchuin, Kotcharat Vipattawat, Suphattra Kanchanakorn, Vinai Leesmidt, Watcharapong Watcharasaksilp, Akhathai Saetie, Chanida Pachotikarn, Sunard Taechangam, Tanyarat Teerapornlertratt, Teerachai Chantarojsiri and Visith Sitprija

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:99

    Content type: Study protocol

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  45. HS219 (40 mg chitosan-loaded chewing gum) is designed to bind salivary phosphorus as an add-on to available phosphorus binders. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the...

    Authors: Tadao Akizawa, Yoshinari Tsuruta, Yoichi Okada, Yoshihiro Miyauchi, Akio Suda, Hiroshi Kasahara, Nobuhiro Sasaki, Yoshitaka Maeda, Takako Suzuki, Noriaki Matsui, Jun Niwayama, Toshiaki Suzuki, Hideaki Hara, Yasushi Asano, Sadao Komemushi and Masafumi Fukagawa

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2014 15:98

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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