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Clinical Research

Section edited by Amir Kazory

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathological features and prognosis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) with focal segmental lesions.

    Authors: Jiatong Li, Bing Chen, Caifeng Gao, Jing Huang, Yongmei Wang, Shiyin Zhang, Ying Xu, Wenkai Guo and Rong Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:467

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Malnutrition and muscle wasting are common in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Their pathogenesis is complex and involves many molecules including Myostatin (Mstn), which acts as a negative regulator of skeletal m...

    Authors: Pasquale Esposito, Yuri Battaglia, Edoardo La Porta, Maria Antonietta Grignano, Elena Caramella, Alessando Avella, Sabrina Peressini, Nicodemo Sessa, Riccardo Albertini, Giuseppe Di Natali, Claudio Lisi, Marilena Gregorini and Teresa Rampino

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:462

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The timing of when to initiate dialysis for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not been well established. There has been a strong trend for early dialysis initiation for these patients over ...

    Authors: Xinju Zhao, Pei Wang, Lining Wang, Xiaonong Chen, Wen Huang, Yonghui Mao, Rihong Hu, Xiaohong Cheng, Caili Wang, Li Wang, Ping Zhang, Detian Li, Yuzhu Wang, Wenling Ye, Yuqing Chen, Qiang Jia…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:455

    Content type: Study protocol

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  4. Extracellular volume overload is a common problem in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with excessive mortality. We determine the effectiveness of treating PD patients with extracellular volu...

    Authors: Man Ching Law, Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan, Janny Suk-Fun Fung, Kai Ming Chow, Jack K.C. Ng, Wing-Fai Pang, Phyllis Mei-Shan Cheng, Chi Bon Leung and Cheuk Chun Szeto

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:454

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Flexitrate, an innovative regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) protocol, was compared to traditional RCA (tRCA) and Heparin anticoagulation protocols in intensive care patients treated with continuous renal ...

    Authors: Ilan Lenga, Wilma M. Hopman, Adam J. O’Connell, Francesca Hume and Charles C. Y. Wei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:452

    Content type: Research article

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  6. To investigate the correlation of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) expression and serum anti-PLA2R antibody with the clinical parameters and prognosis of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy...

    Authors: Dan Dong, Ting-ting Fan, Ying-ying Wang, Lu Zhang, Li Song and Li Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:444

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Reliable, timely-onset, oral treatments with an acceptable safety profile for patients with hyperkalemia are needed. We examined the efficacy and safety of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC; formerly ZS-9) t...

    Authors: Alpesh N. Amin, Jose Menoyo, Bhupinder Singh and Christopher S. Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:440

    Content type: Research article

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  8. In recent years, there has been a growing concern that abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) has a predictive effect on the prognosis of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, whether other vasc...

    Authors: Qingyu Niu, Huiping Zhao, Bei Wu, Shihming Tsai, Jian Wu, Meng Zhang, Lixia Lu, Jie Qiao, Chuncui Men, Li Zuo and Mei Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:439

    Content type: Research article

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  9. There is paucity of data using direct anti-viral agents (DAA) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) infected with HCV-genotype 1 & 3. Aim of the study was to evaluate DAA therapy in patients infected w...

    Authors: Shafiq Ur Rehman Cheema, Muhammad Salman Rehman, Ghulam Hussain, Sidra Shafiq Cheema and Nooman Gilani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:438

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for stroke in the general population. The impact of prior stroke on major clinical outcomes in CKD populations is poorly characterised.

    Authors: James Tollitt, Aghogho Odudu, Emma Flanagan, Rajkumar Chinnadurai, Craig Smith and Philip A. Kalra

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:432

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Dysregulation of the B-cell activating factor (BAFF) system is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increased serum concentrations of BAFF are related to lupus nephritis and dise...

    Authors: Justa Friebus-Kardash, Marten Trendelenburg, Ute Eisenberger, Camillo Ribi, Carlo Chizzolini, Uyen Huynh-Do, Karl Sebastian Lang, Benjamin Wilde, Andreas Kribben, Oliver Witzke, Sebastian Dolff and Cornelia Hardt

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:430

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The commonly used recommended criteria for renal recovery are not unequivocal. This study compared five different definitions of renal recovery in order to evaluate long-term outcomes of cardiac surgery associ...

    Authors: Jiarui Xu, Xialian Xu, Bo Shen, Yamin Zhuang, Lan Liu, Yimei Wang, Yi Fang, Zhe Luo, Jie Teng, Chunsheng Wang, Claudio Ronco, Jiawei Yu and Xiaoqiang Ding

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:427

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Dialysis patients experience high rates of foot ulceration. Although risk factors for ulceration have been extensively studied in patients with diabetes, there is limited high-quality, longitudinal evidence in...

    Authors: Michelle R. Kaminski, Katrina A. Lambert, Anita Raspovic, Lawrence P. McMahon, Bircan Erbas, Peter F. Mount, Peter G. Kerr and Karl B. Landorf

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:423

    Content type: Research article

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  14. In this single-center, retrospective observational study, we assessed the long-term patency of vascular access (VA) after first VA placement to uncover independent risk factors associated with VA patency in As...

    Authors: Seonjeong Jeong, Hyunwook Kwon, Jai Won Chang, Min-Ju Kim, Khaliun Ganbold, Youngjin Han, Tae-Won Kwon and Yong-Pil Cho

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:422

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Dietary acid load has been suggested to mediate the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is unclear what kinds of foods are actually associated with dietary acid load in patients with CKD. ...

    Authors: Koji Toba, Michihiro Hosojima, Hideyuki Kabasawa, Shoji Kuwahara, Toshiko Murayama, Keiko Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Ryohei Kaseda, Eri Wada, Reiko Watanabe, Naohito Tanabe, Yoshiki Suzuki, Ichiei Narita and Akihiko Saito

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:421

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Desmopressin is used to reduce bleeding after kidney biopsy but evidence supporting its use is weak, especially in patients with elevated creatinine. The present study was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of de...

    Authors: Ambarish Athavale, Hemant Kulkarni, Cagil D. Arslan and Peter Hart

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:413

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Inflammaging is a persistent, low−grade, sterile, nonresolving inflammatory state, associated with the senescence of the immune system. Such condition downregulates both innate and adaptive immune responses du...

    Authors: Vincenzo Sepe, Marilena Gregorini, Teresa Rampino, Pasquale Esposito, Rosanna Coppo, Francesco Galli and Carmelo Libetta

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:412

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Following a substantial increase in the utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during the last decade, its associated benefits and complications, including acute kidney injury have become mo...

    Authors: Kianoush Kashani and Marlies Ostermann

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:404

    Content type: Commentary

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  19. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, which often lead to physical inactivity that correlates with CKD exacerbation. The benefits of regular exercise to ...

    Authors: Lijun Zhang, Yangyang Wang, Lianlian Xiong, Yanfang Luo, Zhijun Huang and Bin Yi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:398

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) can lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although one of the proposed mechanisms is heightened platelet activation, effects of ...

    Authors: Nishank Jain, Fei Wan, Monica Kothari, Anuoluwapo Adelodun, Jerry Ware, Ravi Sarode and S. Susan Hedayati

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:395

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Preliminary studies have shown the potential use of salivary creatinine concentration in the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). For saliva to replace serum as a diagnostic tool, studies must be done to...

    Authors: Dada Oluwaseyi Temilola, Karla Bezuidenhout, Rajiv Timothy Erasmus, Lawrence Stephen, Mogamat Razeen Davids and Haly Holmes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:387

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid DNA (cf-DNA) in urine is promising due to the advantage of urine as an easily obtained and non-invasive sample source over tissue and blood. In clinical practice, it is importan...

    Authors: Chia-Chu Chang, Ping-Fang Chiu, Chia-Lin Wu, Cheng-Ling Kuo, Ching-Shan Huang, Chin-San Liu and Ching-Hui Huang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:391

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) often develop hypertension in childhood or early adulthood. Although this could result in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a major risk fac...

    Authors: Huanwen Chen, Terry Watnick, Susie N. Hong, Barry Daly, Yongfang Li and Stephen L. Seliger

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:386

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The burden of kidney diseases is reported to be higher in lower- and middle-income countries as compared to developed countries, and countries in sub-Saharan Africa are reported to be most affected. Health sys...

    Authors: Francis F. Furia, Jacqueline Shoo, Paschal J. Ruggajo, Kajiru Kilonzo, Gopal Basu, Karen Yeates, Santosh Varughese, Einar Svarstad and Onesmo Kisanga

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:378

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Daprodustat is a hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor currently being investigated as a treatment for anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both dialysis and nondialysis patients. In clini...

    Authors: Christine K. Bailey, Stephen Caltabiano, Alexander R. Cobitz, Chun Huang, Kelly M. Mahar and Vickas V. Patel

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:372

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Numerous studies have evaluated the prevalence and importance of mineral and bone disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, little is known about d...

    Authors: Tianye Yang, Wenji Wang, Xiao Tang, Peng Shi, Lulu Zhang, Wenyan Yu, Yingxin Xie, Daqiao Guo and Feng Ding

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:369

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients undergoing liver transplant (LT) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aim to evaluate the pattern of urine and plasma neutrophi...

    Authors: Camila Lima, Luciana Bertocco de Paiva Haddad, Patrícia Donado Vaz de Melo, Luiz Marcelo Malbouisson, Lilian Pires Freitas do Carmo, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D’Albuquerque and Etienne Macedo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:367

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Tacrolimus (TAC) is effective in treating membranous nephropathy (MN); however relapses are frequent after treatment cessation. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to examine whether the addition of myc...

    Authors: Aikaterini Nikolopoulou, Marie Condon, Tabitha Turner-Stokes, H. Terence Cook, Neill Duncan, Jack W. Galliford, Jeremy B. Levy, Liz Lightstone, Charles D. Pusey, Candice Roufosse, Thomas D. Cairns and Megan E. Griffith

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:352

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, and renal involvement is frequently present in MPA. MPA patients with renal involvement may have a worse prognosis. In this study, we aimed to e...

    Authors: Jia Shi, Qing Shen, Xue-Mei Chen and Xiao-Gang Du

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:339

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Sleep disturbance is common among chronic haemodialysis patients, which leads to poor quality of life, in addition to increased instances of morbidity and mortality. Hypervolemia has been linked to sleep probl...

    Authors: Sethanant Sethakarun, Sutachard Bijaphala, Chagriya Kitiyakara, Sarinya Boongird, Pariya Phanachet, Sirimon Reutrakul, Kwanchai Pirojsakul and Arkom Nongnuch

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:211

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Thrombospondin type 1 domain containing 7A (THSD7A) was recently identified target autoantigen in membranous nephropathy (MN). However, patients with positive THSD7A expression were prone to have malignancies....

    Authors: Li Xian, Dandan Dong, Jiamei Luo, Ling Zhuo, Ke Li, Ping Zhang, Wei Wang, Ying Xu, Gang Xu, Li Wang and Guisen Li

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:332

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Focal segmental lesions (FSLs) are not uncommon in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The reported percentage of IMN patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions varies widely between ...

    Authors: Hong-Guang He, Chao-Qing Wu, Kun Ye, Chun Zeng, Yi-Yun Huang, Shu-Wen Luo, Wu Yin, Qiu-Rong Ye and Xiao-Mei Peng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:328

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) can be a sig...

    Authors: Mats C. H. Lassen, Atif N. Qasim, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Jacob L. T. Reeh, Terry Watnick, Stephen L. Seliger, Huanwen Chen, Mariem A. Sawan, Daniel Nguyen, Yongfang Li, Susie N. Hong and Meyeon Park

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:324

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under hemodialysis (HD) are at greater risks of infectious spondylitis (IS), but there is no reliable predictor that facilitate early detection of this relatively r...

    Authors: Kun-Lin Lu, Wen-Hung Huang, Yueh-An Lu, Chan-Yu Lin, Hsin-Hsu Wu, Ching-Wei Hsu, Cheng-Hao Weng, Chao-Yi Wu, I-Wen Wu, Meng-Yu Wu, Tzung-Hai Yen and Huang-Yu Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:323

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are the main cause of death in long-term hemodialysis (HD) patients. Macrophage colony- stimulating factor (M-CSF) is actively involved in the formation of atherosclerosis a...

    Authors: Xuan Deng, Qian Yang, Yuxi Wang, Yi Yang, Guangchang Pei, Han Zhu, Jianliang Wu, Meng Wang, Zhi Zhao, Huzi Xu, Cheng Zhou, Yi Guo, Ying Yao, Zhiguo Zhang, Wenhui Liao and Rui Zeng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:321

    Content type: Research article

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  36. No study has specifically investigated the duration of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in patients who experienced acute kidney injury during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. How...

    Authors: George Kuo, Shao-Wei Chen, Pei-Chun Fan, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, An-Hsun Chou, Cheng-Chia Lee, Pao-Hsien Chu, Feng-Chun Tsai, Ya-Chung Tian and Chih-Hsiang Chang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:318

    Content type: Research article

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  37. It is known that one of the leading causes of morbidity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the anemic syndrome. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of anemia are multiple, erythropoietin deficiency appears as t...

    Authors: Ailema González-Ortiz, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Armando Vázquez-Rangel, Olynka Vega-Vega and Ángeles Espinosa-Cuevas

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:316

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Performing a kidney biopsy is necessary to accurately diagnose diseases such as glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial nephritis, among other such conditions. These conditions predispose patients to chronic...

    Authors: Henrique Pinheiro Konigsfeld, Tatiana Garcia Viana, Suzy Cristine Pereira, Thais Oliveira Claizoni Dos Santos, Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn, Agostinho Tavares and Marcelino de Souza Durão Junior

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:315

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Complement activation plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of primary membranous nephropathy (pMN). C5b-9, C3c, MBL, and factor B have been documented in the subepithelial immune deposits. However, the...

    Authors: Mu-fan Zhang, Jing Huang, Yi-miao Zhang, Zhen Qu, Xin Wang, Fang Wang, Li-qiang Meng, Xu-yang Cheng, Zhao Cui, Gang Liu and Ming-hui Zhao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:313

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Proteinuria is known to be associated with both kidney function deterioration and cardiovascular diseases. While proteinuria estimation from 24-h urine samples has traditionally been considered as the standard...

    Authors: Seiji Kobayashi, Hoichi Amano, Hiroyuki Terawaki, Makoto Ogura, Yoshindo Kawaguchi and Takashi Yokoo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:306

    Content type: Research article

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  41. New non-invasive biomarkers are demanded to identify renal damage in various autoimmune-associated kidney diseases. Glomerular podocyte damage mediated by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) plays an important ...

    Authors: Jian Lu, Ze Bo Hu, Pei Pei Chen, Chen Chen Lu, Jia Xiu Zhang, Xue Qi Li, Ben Yin Yuan, Si Jia Huang and Kun Ling Ma

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:303

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Impaired T cell immune function exists in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Dialysis treatment may lead to changes in T cell subsets. In the present study, we aimed to identify alterations of T cell phe...

    Authors: Jiao Xiaoyan, Chen Rongyi, Cao Xuesen, Zou Jianzhou, Ji Jun, Ding Xiaoqiang and Yu Xiaofang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:301

    Content type: Research article

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  43. A chronic inflammatory state is a prominent feature in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in ...

    Authors: Jia-Hwa Yang, Wei-Teing Chen, Meng-Chang Lee, Wen-Hui Fang, Yu-Juei Hsu, Chin-Lin, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Hsueh-Lu Chang, Chien-Fu Chen, Min-Yu Tu, Chien-Wei Kuo, Yuan-Hau Lin, Po-Jen Hsiao and Sui-Lung Su

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:300

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a well-known immunomodulator, has recently been found to be a promising and safe anti-proteinuric agent for treating IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safet...

    Authors: Ya-zi Yang, Pei Chen, Li-Jun Liu, Qing-Qing Cai, Su-Fang Shi, Yu-Qing Chen, Ji-Cheng Lv and Hong Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:297

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Microparticles (MPs) are biomarkers and mediators of disease through their expression of surface receptors, reflecting activation or stress in their parent cells. Endothelial markers, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, are im...

    Authors: Kristina Lundwall, Josefin Mörtberg, Fariborz Mobarrez, Stefan H. Jacobson, Gun Jörneskog and Jonas Spaak

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:290

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Many patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) need dialysis at disease onset due to severe kidney injury. Determining whether they can become dialysis independent i...

    Authors: Peng-cheng Xu, Tong Chen, Si-jing Wu, Xia Yang, Shan Gao, Shui-yi Hu, Li Wei and Tie-kun Yan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:287

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is common in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, but is frequently underdiagnosed. The risk factors for PAD are well known within the general population, bu...

    Authors: Radislav R. Ašćerić, Nada B. Dimković, Goran Ž. Trajković, Biljana S. Ristić, Aleksandar N. Janković, Petar S. Durić and Nenad S. Ilijevski

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:281

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Scleroderma Renal Crisis (SRC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While prednisone is strongly associated with SRC, there are no previous large cohort studies that have evaluated ace inhib...

    Authors: S. M. Gordon, J. B. Hughes, R. Nee, R. S. Stitt, W. T. Bailey, D. J. Little, J. D. Edison and S. W. Olson

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:279

    Content type: Research article

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