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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit a premature aging phenotype of immune system, which is recently concerned as a significant factor for increased risk of various morbidities. Nevertheless, t...

    Authors: Fangfang Xiang, Rongyi Chen, Xuesen Cao, Bo Shen, Xiaohong Chen, Xiaoqiang Ding and Jianzhou Zou

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:271

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Renal loss of potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+) in salt losing tubulopathies (SLT) leads to significantly reduced Quality of Life (QoL) and higher risks of cardiac arrhythmia. The normalization of K+ is current...

    Authors: Michael Eder, Elisabeth Darmann, Maria C. Haller, Marija Bojic, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Rainer Huditz, Gregor Bond, Andreas Vychytil, Roman Reindl-Schwaighofer and Željko Kikić

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:256

    Content type: Research article

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  3. In recent years, the diagnostic utility of urinary protein levels has been demonstrated for the early detection and progression of kidney disease. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of the non-album...

    Authors: Khalid Siddiqui, Salini Scaria Joy, Shaik Sarfaraz Nawaz, Dhekra Alnaqeb, Muhammad Mujammami and Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:255

    Content type: Research article

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  4. According to the “lipid nephrotoxicity hypothesis”, there is now significant research being conducted in this area. By studying the role of hyperlipidemia in chronic kidney disease in the general Zhejiang popu...

    Authors: Xudong Liang, Meiyu Ye, Mei Tao, Danna Zheng, Ruyi Cai, Yifan Zhu, Juan Jin and Qiang He

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:252

    Content type: Research article

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  5. To explore the potential value of three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Chinese diabetic patients with kidney injury.

    Authors: Nan Li, Yi-ru Wang, Xiao-qi Tian, Lin Lin, Shu-yuan Liang, Qiu-yang Li, Xiang Fei, Jie Tang and Yu-kun Luo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:243

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains one of the leading causes of premature death in diabetes. DKD is classified on albuminuria and reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) but th...

    Authors: Kim M. Gooding, Chrysta Lienczewski, Massimo Papale, Niina Koivuviita, Marlena Maziarz, Anna-Maria Dutius Andersson, Kanishka Sharma, Paola Pontrelli, Alberto Garcia Hernandez, Julie Bailey, Kay Tobin, Virva Saunavaara, Anna Zetterqvist, David Shelley, Irvin Teh, Claire Ball…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:242

    Content type: Study protocol

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  7. Previous studies have not described the relationship between reducing radial artery diameter as well as increasing age and functional maturation of the radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF) and no data ...

    Authors: Zi-ming Wan, Bo Hu, Qi-quan Lai, Xue-jing Gao, Bo Tu, Yu Zhou and Wen-bo Zhao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:234

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Arteriosclerosis is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aims were to investigate (1) the effects of 12 months of either balance- or strength- both in combination with endurance trainin...

    Authors: Yunan Zhou, Matthias Hellberg, Thomas Hellmark, Peter Höglund and Naomi Clyne

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:233

    Content type: Research article

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  9. There is an increasing burden of non-communicable disease globally. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is the most commonly prescribed antiretroviral drug globally. Studies show that patients receiving TDF ar...

    Authors: Louis Nyende, Robert Kalyesubula, Emmanuel Sekasanvu and Pauline Byakika-Kibwika

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:232

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Haemodialysis patients have a high mortality rate. Part of this can be attributed to vascular access complications. Large retrospective studies have shown a higher mortality in patients dialysed with a cathete...

    Authors: Dieter De Clerck, Florence Bonkain, Wilfried Cools and Patricia Van der Niepen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:231

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Proteinuria is a major marker of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and the predictor of cardiovascular mortality. The rapid development of renal failure is expected in those patients who have higher lev...

    Authors: Abduzhappar Gaipov, Zhandos Utegulov, Rostislav Bukasov, Duman Turebekov, Pavel Tarlykov, Zhannur Markhametova, Zhangatay Nurekeyev, Zhanar Kunushpayeva and Alisher Sultangaziyev

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:229

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Although the soluble form of suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) and soluble low-density lipoprotein receptor relative with 11 ligand-binding repeats (sLR11) have emerged as novel cardiovascular biomarkers ...

    Authors: Yu Bum Choi, Mi Jung Lee, Jung Tak Park, Seung Hyeok Han, Shin-Wook Kang, Tae-Hyun Yoo and Hyung Jong Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:228

    Content type: Research article

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  13. To investigate the metabolite changes in the frontal lobe of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with depression using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS).

    Authors: Jiachen Wang, Tong Zhou, Jihua Liu, Jingjun Shangguan, Xuejun Liu, Zhiming Li, Xiaoming Zhou, Yande Ren and Chengjian Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:225

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is frequently coexisted with diabetes mellitus (DM). Few researches investigate clinical outcomes in IMN patients coexisting diabetes mellitus (DM), including remission ...

    Authors: Zhiyong Xie, Zhilian Li, Wei Dong, Yuanhan Chen, Ruizhao Li, Yanhua Wu, Huaban Liang, Zhiming Ye, Shuangxin Liu, Wei Shi and Xinling Liang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:224

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common postoperative complication of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). So far, little attention has been paid on the association between overweight and AKI after OLT, and a...

    Authors: Jian Zhou, Lin Lyu, Lin Zhu, Yongxin Liang, He Dong and Haichen Chu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:223

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The association between glomerulonephritis (GN) and cancer has been well known for decades. However, studies evaluating long-term de novo cancer development in patients with GN are limited. This study aimed to...

    Authors: Hyunjin Ryu, Kipyo Kim, Jiwon Ryu, Hyung-Eun Son, Ji-Young Ryu, Sejoong Kim, Ki Young Na, Dong Wan Chae and Ho Jun Chin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:221

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are useful methods for investigating the morphology and function of the kidneys, including revealing u...

    Authors: Zhiqiang Wang, Hongxu Liu, Heng Meng and Duo Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:210

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among the general population. However, an association between AST/ALT...

    Authors: Xiaoran Feng, Yueqiang Wen, Fen Fen Peng, Niansong Wang, Xiaojiang Zhan and Xianfeng Wu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:209

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Acute kidney disease (AKD) describes acute or subacute damage and/or loss of kidney function for a duration of between 7 and 90 days after exposure to an acute kidney injury (AKI) initiating event. This study ...

    Authors: Yih-Ting Chen, Chang-Chyi Jenq, Cheng-Kai Hsu, Yi-Ching Yu, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Pei-Chun Fan, Heng-Chih Pan, I-Wen Wu, Wen-Jin Cherng and Yung-Chang Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:207

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) reportedly have a high prevalence of aortic valve calcification (AVC). In population-based studies, AVC is considered a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis. The...

    Authors: Yui Arita, Masaru Nakayama, Yuta Matsukuma, Ryota Yoshitomi, Makiko Seki, Akiko Fukui, Susumu Tsuda, Yuri Sonoda, Rina Imazu, Kimika Arakawa, Mitsuhiro Tominaga, Toshiaki Nakano, Kazuhiko Tsuruya and Takanari Kitazono

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:203

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) primarily affect men over 65 years old who often have many other diseases, with similar risk factors and pathobiological mechanisms to AAA. The aim of this study was to assess ...

    Authors: Milena Miszczuk, Verena Müller, Christian E. Althoff, Andrea Stroux, Daniela Widhalm, Andy Dobberstein, Andreas Greiner, Helena Kuivaniemi and Irene Hinterseher

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:201

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Kidney transplantation remains the optimal therapy for patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD), though a small fraction of patients on dialysis are on organ waitlists. An important barrier to both preemp...

    Authors: Samira S. Farouk, Sara Atallah, Kirk N. Campbell, Joseph A. Vassalotti and Jaime Uribarri

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Glomerulonephritides (GN) are relatively rare kidney diseases with substantial morbidity and mortality. They are often difficult to treat, sometimes with no cure, and can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) a...

    Authors: Anas AlYousef, Ali AlSahow, Bassam AlHelal, Ahmed Alqallaf, Emad Abdallah, Mohammed Abdellatif, Hani Nawar and Riham Elmahalawy

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:186

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients have a high incidence of stroke and commonly have increased parathyroid hormone levels and vitamin D insufficiency. We seek to investigate the incidenc...

    Authors: Xiaohan You, Ying Zhou, Jianna Zhang, Qiongxiu Zhou, Yanling Shi, Zhen Su, Chaoshen Chen, Rongrong Shao and Ji Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:183

    Content type: Research article

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  25. We aimed to develop a nomogram based on preprocedural features for early prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) and to assess the prognosis in patients after radical and partial nephrectomy.

    Authors: Lingyu Xu, Chenyu Li, Long Zhao, Bin Zhou, Congjuan Luo, Xiaofei Man, Hong Luan, Lin Che, Yanfei Wang and Yan Xu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:181

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Peritoneal ultrafiltration (pUF) in refractory heart failure (HF) reduces the incidence of decompensation episodes, which is of particular significance as each episode incrementally adds to mortality. Neverthe...

    Authors: Leonie Grossekettler, Bastian Schmack, Carsten Brockmann, Reinhard Wanninger, Michael M. Kreusser, Lutz Frankenstein, Lars P. Kihm, Martin Zeier, Hugo A. Katus, Vedat Schwenger and Andrew Remppis

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:179

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Although urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and renin reflect intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity and are enhanced in proteinuric chronic kidney disease, the clinical value of urinary AGT and renin levels ...

    Authors: Junseok Jeon, Do Hee Kim, Hye Ryoun Jang, Jung Eun Lee, Wooseong Huh, Hye-Young Kim, Dae Joong Kim and Yoon-Goo Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Abdominal aortic calcification assessed by X-ray is recommended to evaluate vascular calcification in dialysis patients. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcification score (AACS) is a predictor of adv...

    Authors: Dahua Ma, Hao Yan, Xiaoxiao Yang, Zanzhe Yu, Zhaohui Ni and Wei Fang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:151

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Whether ligation of the dorsal branch of the cephalic vein during the surgical establishment of the radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF) favorably or adversely affects the patency rate of the RCAVF rema...

    Authors: Hongtao Zhang, Guizhen Zhu, Lei Yan, Yang Lu and Fengmin Shao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:155

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury (CA-AKI) is a serious complication associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an elevated risk for develop...

    Authors: Joseph Walker Keach, Maggie A. Stanislawski, Anna E. Barón, Mary E. Plomondon, Paula Langner, Amit Amin, Heather M. Gilmartin, Stephen Waldo and Thomas M. Maddox

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:150

    Content type: Research article

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  31. There have been few systematic studies regarding clearance of uric acid (UA) in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study investigated peritoneal UA removal and its influencing factors in patien...

    Authors: Xi Xiao, Hongjian Ye, Chunyan Yi, Jianxiong Lin, Yuan Peng, Xuan Huang, Meiju Wu, Haishan Wu, Haiping Mao, Xueqing Yu and Xiao Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:148

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Aciduria caused by urinary excretion of acidic metabolic wastes produced in daily life is known to be augmented in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate the reno-protective effect of oral alk...

    Authors: Michiaki Abe, Tetsuya Akaishi, Mutsumi Shoji, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Takashi Miki, Fumitoshi Satoh, Shin Takayama, Satomi Yamasaki, Kazuhiko Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Sato, Tadashi Ishii and Sadayoshi Ito

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:144

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. Early detection of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical treatment and quality of life for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. This study aimed to evaluate ...

    Authors: Nhan Hieu Dinh, Suzanne Monivong Cheanh Beaupha and Loan Thi Anh Tran

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:142

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Lack of accurate and effective assessment tools of fluid status is one of the major challenges to reach proper dry weight (DW) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) population. The aim of this randomized study was to e...

    Authors: Li Liu, Yi Sun, Yuqing Chen, Jinsheng Xu, Ping Yuan, Yulan Shen, Shan Lin, Weiming Sun, Yingchun Ma, Jianwei Ren, Wenjun Liu, Jinghong Lei and Li Zuo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:135

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most prevalent cause of renal disease in type 2 diabetic patients and is usually diagnosed clinically. A kidney biopsy is considered when non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) is s...

    Authors: Jyh-Tong Hsieh, Fu-Pang Chang, An-Hang Yang, Der-Cherng Tarng and Chih-Yu Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:131

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Chronic kidney disease is an increasingly common health problem for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. It is associated with multiple concurrent psychosocial stressors frequently resulting in negati...

    Authors: Tricia Nagel, Michelle Sweet, Kylie M. Dingwall, Stefanie Puszka, Jaquelyne T. Hughes, David J. Kavanagh, Alan Cass, Kirsten Howard and Sandawana W. Majoni

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:130

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The prevalence of impaired cognitive functioning in older patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) is high. We aim to describe patterns of memory, executive function or psychomotor speed and to identify n...

    Authors: Floor J. van Deudekom, Marije H. Kallenberg, Noeleen C. Berkhout-Byrne, Gerard J. Blauw, Henk Boom, Jeroen de Bresser, Mark A. van Buchem, André Gaasbeek, Sebastiaan Hammer, Joep Lagro, Matthias J. P. van Osch, Marie-Noëlle Witjes-Ané, Ton J. Rabelink, Marjolijn van Buren and Simon P. Mooijaart

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:126

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome has a relapsing-remitting course in the majority of pediatric patients, demanding vigilant monitoring and self-management. A novel, expert-designed, user-informed mobile applicati...

    Authors: Chia-shi Wang, Cam Escoffery, Rachel E. Patzer, Courtney McCracken, Diana Ross, Michelle N. Rheault, Amira Al-Uzri and Larry A. Greenbaum

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:125

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. The renal length and cortical echogenicity have shown correlation to the renal function and histological changes in CKD patients. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of crude and composite ultraso...

    Authors: Nordeval Cavalcante Araújo, Maria Alice Puga Rebelo, Lilimar da Silveira Rioja and José Hermógenes Rocco Suassuna

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:123

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetes is a sensitive marker of microvascular injury and a reliable predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertension-induced hemodynamic pressure load, diabetes...

    Authors: Barbara Nikolaidou, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Panagiota Anyfanti, Eleni Gavriilaki, Antonios Lazaridis, Areti Triantafyllou, Ioanna Zografou and Stella Douma

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:119

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Monoclonal serum free light chains (sFLC) are a well-known cause of renal impairment (RI) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). As an indicator of monoclonality, sFLC ratio has acquired a key role in the dia...

    Authors: Alícia Molina-Andújar, Pau Robles, Maria T. Cibeira, Enrique Montagud-Marrahi, Elena Guillen, Marc Xipell, Miquel Blasco, Esteban Poch, Laura Rosiñol, Joan Bladé and Luis F. Quintana

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:111

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Prior papers have been inconsistent regarding how much creatinine clearance (CrCl) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A recent cross-sectional study suggested that measurement error alone could en...

    Authors: Xuehan Zhang, Andrew D. Rule, Charles E. McCulloch, John C. Lieske, Elaine Ku and Chi-yuan Hsu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5) patients on haemodialysis (HD) are at high risk of accidental falls. Previous research has shown that frailty is one of the primary contributors to the increased risk of ...

    Authors: Tobia Zanotto, Thomas H. Mercer, Marietta L. van der Linden, Robert Rush, Jamie P. Traynor, Colin J. Petrie, Arthur Doyle, Karen Chalmers, Nicola Allan, Ilona Shilliday and Pelagia Koufaki

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:99

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Growing evidence has shown that the gut-renal connection and gut microbiota dysbiosis play a critical role in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). However, the fecal microbiome profile in Chinese patients with...

    Authors: Xiaofang Hu, Jie Du, Yuhong Xie, Qiong Huang, Yi Xiao, Juan Chen, Siyuan Yan, Zhicheng Gong and Shaxi Ouyang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening fungal infection that can occur in kidney transplantation (KT) recipients. A growing number of KT recipients are receiving perioperative treatment with rituxi...

    Authors: Young Hoon Kim, Jee Yeon Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Youngmin Ko, Ji Yoon Choi, Sung Shin, Joo Hee Jung, Su-Kil Park, Sung-Han Kim, Hyunwook Kwon and Duck Jong Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:93

    Content type: Research article

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  46. DD was found to be associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and renal insufficiency. However, it is uncertain whether DD is an independent risk factor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing pPCI.

    Authors: Kai-Yang Lin, Han-Chuan Chen, Hui Jiang, Sun-Ying Wang, Hong-Mei Chen, Zhi-Yong Wu, Feng Jiang, Yan-Song Guo and Peng-Li Zhu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are thought to be exacerbated by the low hemoglobin (Hb) levels that define anemia, a common complication of C...

    Authors: Heleen van Haalen, James Jackson, Bruce Spinowitz, Gary Milligan and Rebecca Moon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Interstitial fibrosis (IF) on kidney biopsy is one of the most potent risk factors for kidney disease progression. The furosemide stress test (FST) is a validated tool that predicts the severity of acute kidne...

    Authors: Jesús Rivero, Francisco Rodríguez, Virgilia Soto, Etienne Macedo, Lakhmir S. Chawla, Ravindra L. Mehta, Sucheta Vaingankar, Pranav S. Garimella, Carlos Garza and Magdalena Madero

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Renalase is a flavoprotein that plays a protective role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases. The secretion and way of action of this protein are still discussed. The aim of our study wa...

    Authors: Natalia M. Serwin, Magda Wiśniewska, Elżbieta Cecerska-Heryć, Krzysztof Safranow, Edyta Skwirczyńska and Barbara Dołęgowska

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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