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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. The prevalence of impaired cognitive functioning in older patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) is high. We aim to describe patterns of memory, executive function or psychomotor speed and to identify n...

    Authors: Floor J. van Deudekom, Marije H. Kallenberg, Noeleen C. Berkhout-Byrne, Gerard J. Blauw, Henk Boom, Jeroen de Bresser, Mark A. van Buchem, André Gaasbeek, Sebastiaan Hammer, Joep Lagro, Matthias J. P. van Osch, Marie-Noëlle Witjes-Ané, Ton J. Rabelink, Marjolijn van Buren and Simon P. Mooijaart

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:126

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome has a relapsing-remitting course in the majority of pediatric patients, demanding vigilant monitoring and self-management. A novel, expert-designed, user-informed mobile applicati...

    Authors: Chia-shi Wang, Cam Escoffery, Rachel E. Patzer, Courtney McCracken, Diana Ross, Michelle N. Rheault, Amira Al-Uzri and Larry A. Greenbaum

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:125

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. The renal length and cortical echogenicity have shown correlation to the renal function and histological changes in CKD patients. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of crude and composite ultraso...

    Authors: Nordeval Cavalcante Araújo, Maria Alice Puga Rebelo, Lilimar da Silveira Rioja and José Hermógenes Rocco Suassuna

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:123

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetes is a sensitive marker of microvascular injury and a reliable predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertension-induced hemodynamic pressure load, diabetes...

    Authors: Barbara Nikolaidou, Eugenia Gkaliagkousi, Panagiota Anyfanti, Eleni Gavriilaki, Antonios Lazaridis, Areti Triantafyllou, Ioanna Zografou and Stella Douma

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:119

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Monoclonal serum free light chains (sFLC) are a well-known cause of renal impairment (RI) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). As an indicator of monoclonality, sFLC ratio has acquired a key role in the dia...

    Authors: Alícia Molina-Andújar, Pau Robles, Maria T. Cibeira, Enrique Montagud-Marrahi, Elena Guillen, Marc Xipell, Miquel Blasco, Esteban Poch, Laura Rosiñol, Joan Bladé and Luis F. Quintana

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:111

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Prior papers have been inconsistent regarding how much creatinine clearance (CrCl) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A recent cross-sectional study suggested that measurement error alone could en...

    Authors: Xuehan Zhang, Andrew D. Rule, Charles E. McCulloch, John C. Lieske, Elaine Ku and Chi-yuan Hsu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5) patients on haemodialysis (HD) are at high risk of accidental falls. Previous research has shown that frailty is one of the primary contributors to the increased risk of ...

    Authors: Tobia Zanotto, Thomas H. Mercer, Marietta L. van der Linden, Robert Rush, Jamie P. Traynor, Colin J. Petrie, Arthur Doyle, Karen Chalmers, Nicola Allan, Ilona Shilliday and Pelagia Koufaki

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:99

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Growing evidence has shown that the gut-renal connection and gut microbiota dysbiosis play a critical role in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). However, the fecal microbiome profile in Chinese patients with...

    Authors: Xiaofang Hu, Jie Du, Yuhong Xie, Qiong Huang, Yi Xiao, Juan Chen, Siyuan Yan, Zhicheng Gong and Shaxi Ouyang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening fungal infection that can occur in kidney transplantation (KT) recipients. A growing number of KT recipients are receiving perioperative treatment with rituxi...

    Authors: Young Hoon Kim, Jee Yeon Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Youngmin Ko, Ji Yoon Choi, Sung Shin, Joo Hee Jung, Su-Kil Park, Sung-Han Kim, Hyunwook Kwon and Duck Jong Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:93

    Content type: Research article

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  10. DD was found to be associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and renal insufficiency. However, it is uncertain whether DD is an independent risk factor of CI-AKI in patients undergoing pPCI.

    Authors: Kai-Yang Lin, Han-Chuan Chen, Hui Jiang, Sun-Ying Wang, Hong-Mei Chen, Zhi-Yong Wu, Feng Jiang, Yan-Song Guo and Peng-Li Zhu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are thought to be exacerbated by the low hemoglobin (Hb) levels that define anemia, a common complication of C...

    Authors: Heleen van Haalen, James Jackson, Bruce Spinowitz, Gary Milligan and Rebecca Moon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Interstitial fibrosis (IF) on kidney biopsy is one of the most potent risk factors for kidney disease progression. The furosemide stress test (FST) is a validated tool that predicts the severity of acute kidne...

    Authors: Jesús Rivero, Francisco Rodríguez, Virgilia Soto, Etienne Macedo, Lakhmir S. Chawla, Ravindra L. Mehta, Sucheta Vaingankar, Pranav S. Garimella, Carlos Garza and Magdalena Madero

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Renalase is a flavoprotein that plays a protective role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases. The secretion and way of action of this protein are still discussed. The aim of our study wa...

    Authors: Natalia M. Serwin, Magda Wiśniewska, Elżbieta Cecerska-Heryć, Krzysztof Safranow, Edyta Skwirczyńska and Barbara Dołęgowska

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:77

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes enhances the cardiovascular risk profiles and disease, and is a strong predictor of progression to end-stage kidney disease. Early diagnosis is enc...

    Authors: Frederick C. F. Otieno, Elijah N. Ogola, M. W. Kimando and Kenn Mutai

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  15. A positive pregnancy test in acute or chronically ill patients has implications for the use of potentially mutagenic or teratogenic products in urgent medical therapies such as the use of chemotherapies or the...

    Authors: Natalja Haninger-Vacariu, Harald Herkner, Matthias Lorenz, Marcus Säemann, Andreas Vychytil, Martin Jansen, Rodrig Marculescu, Reinhard Kramar, Gere Sunder-Plassmann and Alice Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:70

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Hemodialysis sessions frequently become unstable from complications such as intradialytic hypotension and untoward symptoms. Previous patient safety initiatives promote prevention of treatment complications; y...

    Authors: Pei-Yi Kuo, Rajiv Saran, Marissa Argentina, Michael Heung, Jennifer Bragg-Gresham, Sarah Krein, Brenda W. Gillespie, Kai Zheng and Tiffany C. Veinot

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The application of laparoscopic catheterization technology in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has recently increased. However, the advantages and disadvantages of laparoscopic versus conventional open PD cat...

    Authors: Mei-Lan Sun, Yong Zhang, Bo Wang, Te-An Ma, Hong Jiang, Shou-Liang Hu, Piao Zhang and Yan-Hong Tuo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Oral iron is recommended as first line treatment of anemia in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients. Sucrosomial® iron, a new generation oral iron with high absorption and bioavailability and a...

    Authors: Eleonora Riccio, Massimo Sabbatini, Ivana Capuano, Angela Maria Pellegrino, Luigi Annicchiarico Petruzzelli and Antonio Pisani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:57

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Data on clinical characteristics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are scarce. We investigated the clinical features and risk factors of NAFLD using noni...

    Authors: A Reum Choe, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Hwi Young Kim, Hye Ah Lee, Jiyoung Lim, Jin Sil Kim, Jeong Kyong Lee, Tae Hun Kim and Kwon Yoo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Flurbiprofen axetil (FA) is a commonly prescribed agent to relieve perioperative pain, but the relationship between FA and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. This study attempted to evalu...

    Authors: Dong Wang, Shi-Kun Yang, Meng-Xi Zhao, Yong-Zhong Tang, Wen OU-Yang, Hao Zhang and Qin Liao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Albumin-globulin ratio (AGR), a variable based on serum albumin and non-albumin proteins, has been demonstrated as a predictor of mortality in patients with malignant neoplasm. The aim of this study was to eva...

    Authors: Fenfen Peng, Lingzhi Sun, Ting Chen, Yan Zhu, Weidong Zhou, Peilin Li, Yihua Chen, Yiyi Zhuang, Qianyin Huang and Haibo Long

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:51

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Magnesium disorders are commonly encountered in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are typically a consequence of decreased kidney function or frequently prescribed medications such as diuretics and proton pump ...

    Authors: Rami Azem, Remy Daou, Elias Bassil, Eva Maria Anvari, Jonathan J. Taliercio, Susana Arrigain, Jesse D. Schold, Tushar Vachharajani, Joseph Nally and Georges N. Na khoul

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:49

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2020 21:139

  23. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important risk factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) patients. The current study aimed ...

    Authors: Junzhe Chen, Honghui Zeng, Xia Ouyang, Mingsheng Zhu, Qiuyan Huang, Wenjuan Yu, Li Ling, Hui-yao Lan, Anping Xu and Ying Tang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Pre-operative risk scores are more valuable than post-procedure risk scores because of lacking effective treatment for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). A number of pre-operative risk scores have ...

    Authors: Wenjun Yin, Ge Zhou, Lingyun Zhou, Mancang Liu, Yueliang Xie, Jianglin Wang, Shanru Zuo, Kun Liu, Can Hu, Linhua Chen, Huiqin Yang and Xiaocong Zuo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:45

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Given the aging of the population, nephrologists are ever more frequently assisting nonagenarians with acute kidney injury (AKI). The management of these patients presents unique characteristics, including bio...

    Authors: Andre Luis Bastos Sousa, Leticia Mascarenhas de Souza, Osvaldino Vieira Santana Filho, Victor Hugo Ferreira e Léda and Paulo Novis Rocha

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:34

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major comorbidity in critically ill patients. Low-dose atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to effectively prevent acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in cardiovascu...

    Authors: Keita Saito, Shigehiko Uchino, Tomoko Fujii, Shinjiro Saito, Masanori Takinami and Shoichi Uezono

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:31

    Content type: Research article

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  27. More and more studies demonstrated that genetic variation at C1GALT1 influences Gd-IgA1 level in IgAN. However, whether the expression of β1, 3-galactosyltransferase (β1, 3Gal-T) was influenced may provide ins...

    Authors: Yue Xing, Lina Li, Yaru Zhang, Fanghao Wang, Dandan He, Youxia Liu, Junya Jia, Tiekun Yan and Shan Lin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:18

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Eosinophils in kidney disease are poorly understood and are often incidental findings on kidney biopsy. Eosinophilia in blood and renal biopsy tissue is associated with a host of immune and non-immune kidney d...

    Authors: Anam Tariq, Keisuke Okamato, Azka Tariq, Avi Z. Rosenberg, Karim M. Soliman, David W. Ploth, Mohamed G. Atta and Blaithin A. McMahon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:14

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The long-term predictive ability of acute kidney injury (AKI) classification based on “Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes”(KDIGO) AKI diagnosis criteria has not been clinically validated in diffuse prol...

    Authors: Tianxin Chen, Ying Zhou, Jianna Zhang, Chaosheng Chen and Jingye Pan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:13

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Early identification of people with CKD in primary care, particularly those with risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension, enables proactive management and referral to specialist services for progressive...

    Authors: S. A. Hull, V. Rajabzadeh, N. Thomas, S. Hoong, G. Dreyer, H. Rainey and N. Ashman

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:10

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Somatic symptoms are commonly reported by patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Based on evidence that exercise can improve psychological state among the general population, we aimed to evaluate the effects of...

    Authors: Xiaowei Lou, Yiwen Li, Huajuan Shen, Jin Juan and Qiang He

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:477

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Recommended regular saline flushing presents clinical ineffectiveness for hemodialysis (HD) patients at high risk of bleeding with heparin contraindication. Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) has previousl...

    Authors: Ting Lin, Li Song, Renwei Huang, Ying Huang, Shuifu Tang, Qizhan Lin, Ying Zhang, Xingbo Wu, Hui Liang, Yuchi Wu, Yuanhan Chen, Huaban Liang, Jianchao Ma, Zhonglin Feng, Zhuo Li, Lixia Xu…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:472

    Content type: Research article

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  33. A simpler method for detecting atherosclerosis obliterans is required in the clinical setting. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is easy to perform and can accurately detect deterioration in skin perfusion. We per...

    Authors: Takeo Ishii, Shizuka Takabe, Yuki Yanagawa, Yuko Ohshima, Yasuhiro Kagawa, Atsuko Shibata and Kunio Oyama

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:470

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathological features and prognosis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) with focal segmental lesions.

    Authors: Jiatong Li, Bing Chen, Caifeng Gao, Jing Huang, Yongmei Wang, Shiyin Zhang, Ying Xu, Wenkai Guo and Rong Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:467

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Malnutrition and muscle wasting are common in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Their pathogenesis is complex and involves many molecules including Myostatin (Mstn), which acts as a negative regulator of skeletal m...

    Authors: Pasquale Esposito, Yuri Battaglia, Edoardo La Porta, Maria Antonietta Grignano, Elena Caramella, Alessando Avella, Sabrina Peressini, Nicodemo Sessa, Riccardo Albertini, Giuseppe Di Natali, Claudio Lisi, Marilena Gregorini and Teresa Rampino

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:462

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The timing of when to initiate dialysis for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not been well established. There has been a strong trend for early dialysis initiation for these patients over ...

    Authors: Xinju Zhao, Pei Wang, Lining Wang, Xiaonong Chen, Wen Huang, Yonghui Mao, Rihong Hu, Xiaohong Cheng, Caili Wang, Li Wang, Ping Zhang, Detian Li, Yuzhu Wang, Wenling Ye, Yuqing Chen, Qiang Jia…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:455

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Extracellular volume overload is a common problem in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with excessive mortality. We determine the effectiveness of treating PD patients with extracellular volu...

    Authors: Man Ching Law, Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan, Janny Suk-Fun Fung, Kai Ming Chow, Jack K.C. Ng, Wing-Fai Pang, Phyllis Mei-Shan Cheng, Chi Bon Leung and Cheuk Chun Szeto

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:454

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Flexitrate, an innovative regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) protocol, was compared to traditional RCA (tRCA) and Heparin anticoagulation protocols in intensive care patients treated with continuous renal ...

    Authors: Ilan Lenga, Wilma M. Hopman, Adam J. O’Connell, Francesca Hume and Charles C. Y. Wei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:452

    Content type: Research article

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  39. To investigate the correlation of M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) expression and serum anti-PLA2R antibody with the clinical parameters and prognosis of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy...

    Authors: Dan Dong, Ting-ting Fan, Ying-ying Wang, Lu Zhang, Li Song and Li Zhang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:444

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Reliable, timely-onset, oral treatments with an acceptable safety profile for patients with hyperkalemia are needed. We examined the efficacy and safety of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC; formerly ZS-9) t...

    Authors: Alpesh N. Amin, Jose Menoyo, Bhupinder Singh and Christopher S. Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:440

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In recent years, there has been a growing concern that abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) has a predictive effect on the prognosis of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, whether other vasc...

    Authors: Qingyu Niu, Huiping Zhao, Bei Wu, Shihming Tsai, Jian Wu, Meng Zhang, Lixia Lu, Jie Qiao, Chuncui Men, Li Zuo and Mei Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:439

    Content type: Research article

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  42. There is paucity of data using direct anti-viral agents (DAA) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) infected with HCV-genotype 1 & 3. Aim of the study was to evaluate DAA therapy in patients infected w...

    Authors: Shafiq Ur Rehman Cheema, Muhammad Salman Rehman, Ghulam Hussain, Sidra Shafiq Cheema and Nooman Gilani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:438

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for stroke in the general population. The impact of prior stroke on major clinical outcomes in CKD populations is poorly characterised.

    Authors: James Tollitt, Aghogho Odudu, Emma Flanagan, Rajkumar Chinnadurai, Craig Smith and Philip A. Kalra

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:432

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Dysregulation of the B-cell activating factor (BAFF) system is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increased serum concentrations of BAFF are related to lupus nephritis and dise...

    Authors: Justa Friebus-Kardash, Marten Trendelenburg, Ute Eisenberger, Camillo Ribi, Carlo Chizzolini, Uyen Huynh-Do, Karl Sebastian Lang, Benjamin Wilde, Andreas Kribben, Oliver Witzke, Sebastian Dolff and Cornelia Hardt

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:430

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The commonly used recommended criteria for renal recovery are not unequivocal. This study compared five different definitions of renal recovery in order to evaluate long-term outcomes of cardiac surgery associ...

    Authors: Jiarui Xu, Xialian Xu, Bo Shen, Yamin Zhuang, Lan Liu, Yimei Wang, Yi Fang, Zhe Luo, Jie Teng, Chunsheng Wang, Claudio Ronco, Jiawei Yu and Xiaoqiang Ding

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:427

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Dialysis patients experience high rates of foot ulceration. Although risk factors for ulceration have been extensively studied in patients with diabetes, there is limited high-quality, longitudinal evidence in...

    Authors: Michelle R. Kaminski, Katrina A. Lambert, Anita Raspovic, Lawrence P. McMahon, Bircan Erbas, Peter F. Mount, Peter G. Kerr and Karl B. Landorf

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:423

    Content type: Research article

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  47. In this single-center, retrospective observational study, we assessed the long-term patency of vascular access (VA) after first VA placement to uncover independent risk factors associated with VA patency in As...

    Authors: Seonjeong Jeong, Hyunwook Kwon, Jai Won Chang, Min-Ju Kim, Khaliun Ganbold, Youngjin Han, Tae-Won Kwon and Yong-Pil Cho

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:422

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Dietary acid load has been suggested to mediate the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is unclear what kinds of foods are actually associated with dietary acid load in patients with CKD. ...

    Authors: Koji Toba, Michihiro Hosojima, Hideyuki Kabasawa, Shoji Kuwahara, Toshiko Murayama, Keiko Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Ryohei Kaseda, Eri Wada, Reiko Watanabe, Naohito Tanabe, Yoshiki Suzuki, Ichiei Narita and Akihiko Saito

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:421

    Content type: Research article

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COVID-19 Announcement

As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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