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Clinical Research

Section edited by Amir Kazory

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. The serum immunoglobulin A (IgA)/C3 ratio is considered to be an effective predictor of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). This study sought to explore the diagnostic value of the IgA/C3 ratio in IgAN among primary glome...

    Authors: Wen-yu Gong, Man Liu, Dan Luo, Fan-na Liu, Liang-hong Yin, Yuan-qing Li, Jun Zhang and Hui Peng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:150

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important component of patient-centered outcomes and a useful parameter for monitoring quality of care. We assessed HRQoL, its determinants, and associations with m...

    Authors: Ming Pei, Rute Aguiar, Agneta A. Pagels, Olof Heimbürger, Peter Stenvinkel, Peter Bárány, Charlotte Medin, Stefan H. Jacobson, Britta Hylander, Bengt Lindholm and Abdul Rashid Qureshi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:144

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide, and proteinuria is a well-established marker of disease progression in CKD patients. Propolis, a natural resin produced by bees from plant mat...

    Authors: Marcelo Augusto Duarte Silveira, Flávio Teles, Andressa A. Berretta, Talita R. Sanches, Camila Eleutério Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos Seguro and Lúcia Andrade

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:140

    Content type: Research article

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  4. An increased incidence of thromboembolic events (TE) are reported in nephrotic syndrome (NS) leading to recommendations for prophylactic anticoagulation (PAC). However, as no randomized clinical trial has esta...

    Authors: Sarah Kelddal, Karen Marie Nykjær, Jon Waarst Gregersen and Henrik Birn

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:139

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Proteinuria screening is recommended for patients with hypertension to screen for kidney disease and identify those at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. However, screening rates among hypertensive pati...

    Authors: Julia Leddy, Jamie A. Green, Christina Yule, Juliann Molecavage, Josef Coresh and Alex R. Chang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:132

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Prediction of successful discontinuation of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) might reduce complications of over- and under-treatment. The aim of this study was to identify renal and non-renal predic...

    Authors: Susanne Stads, K. Merijn Kant, Margriet F. C. de Jong, Wouter de Ruijter, Christa M. Cobbaert, Michiel G. H. Betjes, Diederik Gommers and Heleen M. Oudemans-van Straaten

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:129

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released into extracellular subsequent to cell injury and death can promote inflammation in patients and animal models. However, the effects of peritoneal dialysate cell-free mtDNA on...

    Authors: Xishao Xie, Junni Wang, Shilong Xiang, Zhimin Chen, Xiaohui Zhang and Jianghua Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:128

    Content type: Research article

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  8. There are limited long-term outcome data in eculizumab-treated patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). We report final results from the largest prospective, observational, multicenter study of...

    Authors: Jan Menne, Yahsou Delmas, Fadi Fakhouri, Christoph Licht, Åsa Lommelé, Enrico E. Minetti, François Provôt, Eric Rondeau, Neil S. Sheerin, Jimmy Wang, Laurent E. Weekers and Larry A. Greenbaum

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:125

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Little is known about salt taste dysfunction among hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to elucidate the prevalence of salt taste dysfunction and its relationship with interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) ...

    Authors: Mai Tanaka, Hiroki Nishiwaki, Hiroshi Kado, Yohei Doi, Chieko Ihoriya, Kenji Omae and Keiichi Tamagaki

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:121

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is one of the substances that affects the calculated serum osmolality (cSosm). A previous study demonstrated that BUN and cSosm were independently associated with the development of c...

    Authors: Makiko Seki, Masaru Nakayama, Teppei Sakoh, Ryota Yoshitomi, Akiko Fukui, Eisuke Katafuchi, Susumu Tsuda, Toshiaki Nakano, Kazuhiko Tsuruya and Takanari Kitazono

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:115

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Sarcopenia has become a serious disorder in modern society. Chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis and diabetes are some of the disorders that accelerate the onset and progression of sarcopenia. We, therefo...

    Authors: Katsuhito Mori, Kozo Nishide, Senji Okuno, Tetsuo Shoji, Masanori Emoto, Akihiro Tsuda, Shinya Nakatani, Yasuo Imanishi, Eiji Ishimura, Tomoyuki Yamakawa, Shigeichi Shoji and Masaaki Inaba

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:105

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Guidelines for general hypertension treatment do not recommend the combined use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors due to the risk of hyperkalemia. However, a recent clinical trial showe...

    Authors: Hyoungnae Kim, Seohyun Park, Jong Hyun Jhee, Hae-Ryong Yun, Jung Tak Park, Seung Hyeok Han, Joongyub Lee, Soo Wan Kim, Yeong Hoon Kim, Yun Kyu Oh, Shin-Wook Kang, Kyu Hun Choi and Tae-Hyun Yoo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:104

    Content type: Research article

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  13. As more patients at lower cardiovascular (CV) risk are treated with statins, the balance between cardiovascular benefits and the risk of adverse events becomes increasingly important.

    Authors: Marcello Tonelli, Anita M. Lloyd, Aminu K. Bello, Matthew T. James, Scott W. Klarenbach, Finlay A. McAlister, Braden J. Manns, Ross T. Tsuyuki and Brenda R. Hemmelgarn

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:103

    Content type: Research article

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  14. End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients require a renal replacement therapy (RRT) to filter accumulated toxins and remove excess water, which are associated with impaired physical function. Hemodialysis (HD) r...

    Authors: Roberto Pecoits-Filho, John W. Larkin, Carlos Eduardo Poli-de-Figueiredo, Américo Lourenço Cuvello Neto, Ana Beatriz Barra, Sinaia Canhada, Ludimila Guedim de Campos, Juliane Woehl, Priscila Bezerra Gonçalves, Hao Han, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Jochen G. Raimann and Maria Eugenia F. Canziani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:98

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Hyperuricemia (HUA) is very common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). HUA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and accelerates the progression of CKD. Our study aimed to explore the rela...

    Authors: Shulei Fan, Ping Zhang, Amanda Ying Wang, Xia Wang, Li Wang, Guisen Li and Daqing Hong

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:95

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill children is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study we evaluated the effect of AKI severity on the incidence of short-term mortality and mor...

    Authors: Osama Y. Safder, Khalid A. Alhasan, Mohamed A. Shalaby, Norah Khathlan, Suleman A. Al Rezgan, Amr S. Albanna and Jameela A. Kari

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:89

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2020 21:137

  17. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is an important cause of acute kidney injury and often a potentially reversible disease. However, the role of steroids in ATIN remains controversial and the underlying...

    Authors: Donghwan Yun, Myoung-jin Jang, Jung Nam An, Jung Pyo Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Ho Jun Chin, Yon Su Kim, Dong-Sup Lee and Seung Seok Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:88

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Hemodialysis patients have high rates of sudden death, but relationships between serum electrolytes, the dialysis prescription, and intra-dialytic shifts in fluid and electrolyte with arrhythmia are uncertain.

    Authors: James A. Tumlin, Prabir Roy-Chaudhury, Bruce A. Koplan, Alexandru I. Costea, Vijay Kher, Don Williamson, Saurabh Pokhariyal and David M. Charytan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:80

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Exacerbated inflammatory response is considered one of the key elements of acute kidney injury (AKI). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays important roles in the inflammatory response an...

    Authors: Takashi Shimazui, Taka-aki Nakada, Yoshihisa Tateishi, Taku Oshima, Tuerxun Aizimu and Shigeto Oda

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:74

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of recurring thrombotic events following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Microparticles (MPs) are circulating small vesicles shed from various cel...

    Authors: Josefin Mörtberg, Kristina Lundwall, Fariborz Mobarrez, Håkan Wallén, Stefan H. Jacobson and Jonas Spaak

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:71

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Infections are the second leading cause of death and hospitalisation among haemodialysis (HD) patients. Rates of access-related bloodstream infections (AR-BSI) are influenced by patient characteristics and loc...

    Authors: Husham Mohamed, Alaa Ali, Leonard D. Browne, Nuala H. O’Connell, Liam Casserly, Austin G. Stack and Wael F. Hussein

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease and is characterized by gradual cyst growth and expansion, increase in kidney volume with an ultimate decline i...

    Authors: Kyoungmi Kim, Josephine F. Trott, Guimin Gao, Arlene Chapman and Robert H. Weiss

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:66

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Insulin resistance contributes to the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the development of kidney disease. However, it is unclear if insulin resistance independently contributes to an increased risk...

    Authors: Sarah J. Schrauben, Christopher Jepson, Jesse Y. Hsu, F. Perry Wilson, Xiaoming Zhang, James P. Lash, Bruce M. Robinson, Raymond R. Townsend, Jing Chen, Leon Fogelfeld, Patricia Kao, J. Richard Landis, Daniel J. Rader, L. Lee Hamm, Amanda H. Anderson and Harold I. Feldman

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:60

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Intravenous pulse methylprednisolone (MP) is commonly included in the management of severe ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV) despite limited evidence of benefit. We aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients who ha...

    Authors: Dimitrios Chanouzas, Julie Anne G. McGregor, Peter Nightingale, Alan D. Salama, Wladimir M. Szpirt, Neil Basu, Matthew David Morgan, Caroline J. Poulton, Juliana Bordignon Draibe, Elizabeth Krarup, Paula Dospinescu, Jessica Anne Dale, William Franklin Pendergraft, Keegan Lee, Martin Egfjord, Susan L. Hogan…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:58

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Protein-bound uremic toxins are associated with poor outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between indoxyl sulfate (IS), a protein-bound sol...

    Authors: Wenji Wang, Guihua Hao, Yu Pan, Shuai Ma, Tianye Yang, Peng Shi, Qiuyu Zhu, Yingxin Xie, Shaojun Ma, Qi Zhang, Hong Ruan and Feng Ding

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:57

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The aim of this study was to assess, the efficacy and safety of add-on corticosteroids to antiretroviral therapy [ART] in patients with biopsy proven HIV associated nephropathy.

    Authors: Nicola Wearne, Charles R. Swanepoel, Maureen S. Duffield, Bianca J. Davidson, Kathryn Manning, Nicki Tiffin, Andrew Boulle, Brian L. Rayner, Priyanka Naidu and Ikechi G. Okpechi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:44

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Cystatin C (Cys C) used clinically for detecting early acute kidney injury (AKI) was reported to be associated with thyroid function. Therefore, whether the performance of Cys C is affected by thyroid hormones...

    Authors: Danqing Zhang, Lu Gao, Heng Ye, Ruibin Chi, Lin Wang, Linhui Hu, Xin Ouyang, Yating Hou, Yujun Deng, Yi Long, Weiping Xiong and Chunbo Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:41

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) remains gold standard for the treatment of localised renal cell cancer (RCC), even in case of a normal contralateral kidney. Compared to radical nephrectomy, kidney failure and ca...

    Authors: Jan Ebbing, Felix Menzel, Paolo Frumento, Kurt Miller, Bernhard Ralla, Tom Florian Fuller, Jonas Busch, Justin William Collins, Christofer Adding, Hans Helge Seifert, Peter Ardelt, Christian Wetterauer, Timm Westhoff and Carsten Kempkensteffen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:40

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2019 20:86

  29. Hyperphosphataemia in dialysis subjects is associated with increased mortality. However cause and effect has not been proven, and the ideal phosphate target range is unknown despite KDOQI’s call for studies ov...

    Authors: Ramya Bhargava, Philip A. Kalra, Mark Hann, Paul Brenchley, Helen Hurst and Alastair J. Hutchison

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:37

    Content type: Research article

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  30. An increasing amount of evidence has demonstrated an association between an increase in the level of tumor necrosis factor superfamily 13 (TNFSF13) and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) progression. We aimed...

    Authors: Hyung Ah Jo, Seung Seok Han, Sunhwa Lee, Joo Young Kim, Seung Hee Yang, Hajeong Lee, Jae Seok Yang, Jung Pyo Lee, Kwon Wook Joo, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Curie Ahn, Jin Suk Han and Dong Ki Kim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:33

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Data on radial access (RA) as an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI) in myocardial infarction (MI) patients are conflicting. Our aim was to assess how RA influences the incidence of AKI in MI...

    Authors: Vojko Kanic, Gregor Kompara, David Šuran, Alojz Tapajner, Franjo Husam Naji and Andreja Sinkovic

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:28

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Garlic can be considered as a useful natural herb in inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of garlic extract in lowering inflammatory markers in peritoneal dialysis ...

    Authors: Elham Zare, Amirhesam Alirezaei, Mahmood Bakhtiyari and Asieh Mansouri

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:26

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Iron deficiency is frequent in haemodialysis (HD) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and intravenous iron is an established therapy for these patients. This study assessed treatment routine, effective...

    Authors: Ashraf I. Mikhail, Staffan Schön, Sylvia Simon, Christopher Brown, Jörgen B. A. Hegbrant, Gert Jensen, Jason Moore and Lennart D. I. Lundberg

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:13

    Content type: Research article

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  34. HIV-positive persons bear an excess burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, conventional methods to assess kidney health are insensitive and non-specific for detecting early kidney injury. Urinary bio...

    Authors: Anthony N. Muiru, Michael G. Shlipak, Rebecca Scherzer, William R. Zhang, Simon B. Ascher, Vasantha Jotwani, Carl Grunfeld, Chirag R. Parikh, Derek Ng, Frank J. Palella Jr, Ken Ho, Seble Kassaye, Anjali Sharma, Mardge Cohen, Ruibin Wang, Qibin Qi…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:4

    Content type: Research article

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  35. This cluster randomised controlled trial set out to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of the “Combined Diabetes and Renal Control Trial” (C-DIRECT) intervention, a nurse-led intervention based on m...

    Authors: K. Griva, M. Rajeswari, M. Nandakumar, E. Y. H. Khoo, V. Y. W. Lee, C. G. Chua, Z. S. Goh, Y. T. D. Choong and S. P. Newman

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2019 20:2

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Most studies on obesity surgery have measured renal function using the estimated GFR. However, due to the reduction of muscle mass, and therefore creatinine that accompanies weight loss, such measures can fals...

    Authors: Ling L. Chuah, Alexander D. Miras, Laura M. Perry, Andrew H. Frankel, David J. Towey, Zahraa Al-Mayahi, William Svensson and Carel W. le Roux

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:383

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing. Obesity is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease. Several studies suggested that body mass index (BMI) could be an i...

    Authors: Changwei Wu, Amanda Y. Wang, Guisen Li and Li Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:381

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The prevalence of cognitive disorders in hemodialysis patients is twice as high as the general population, while these disorders often are undiagnosed. Timely prevention and treatment can improve their persona...

    Authors: Afshin Samaei, Monir Nobahar, Zaynab Hydarinia-Naieni, Abbas Ali Ebrahimian, Mohammad Reza Tammadon, Raheb Ghorbani and Abbas Ali Vafaei

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:379

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Caffeine has been proposed, based on in vitro cultured cell studies, to accelerate progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by increasing kidney size. Since ADPKD patients are advise...

    Authors: Katelyn A. McKenzie, Mirelle El Ters, Vicente E. Torres, Peter C. Harris, Arlene B. Chapman, Michal Mrug, Frederic F. Rahbari-Oskoui, Kyongtae Ty Bae, Douglas P. Landsittel, William M. Bennett, Alan S. L. Yu and Jonathan D. Mahnken

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:378

    Content type: Research article

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  40. To assess the time to first on-study vascular thromboembolic events (VTEs) of clopidogrel (CL) or beraprost sodium (BPS) in Chinese population with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with arteriovenous fis...

    Authors: Yu Zhou, Ling Du, Bo Tu, Qiquan Lai, Xiaonan Du, Bo Xu, Fan Zhang, Mingdong Zhao, Ziming Wan and Jiajie Lai

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:376

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The impact of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) on patients with chronic renal disease is well-known. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive method that can reduce the risk of CI-...

    Authors: Ali Ghaemian, Jamshid Yazdani, Soheil Azizi, Ali A. Farsavian, Maryam Nabati, Alireza Malekrah, Mozhdeh Dabirian, Fatemeh Espahbodi, Bahareh Mirjani, Hossein Mohsenipouya and Javad Heshmatian

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:373

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The introduction of a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) device into the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuit is widely used. However, excessive pressure transmitted to the CRRT device i...

    Authors: Soo Jin Na, Hee Jung Choi, Chi Ryang Chung, Yang Hyun Cho, Hye Ryoun Jang, Gee Young Suh and Kyeongman Jeon

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:369

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Somatostatin (SST) inhibits intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and thus may modify cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated whether en...

    Authors: A. Lianne Messchendorp, Edwin M. Spithoven, Niek F. Casteleijn, Wendy A. Dam, Jacob van den Born, Wouter F. Tonnis, Carlo A. J. M. Gaillard and Esther Meijer

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:368

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Urinary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragment level has been proposed as a biomarker of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we determine the relation between urinary mtDNA level and rate of renal functio...

    Authors: Zhongping WEI, Bonnie Ching-Ha KWAN, Kai Ming CHOW, Phyllis Mei-Shan CHENG, Cathy Choi-Wan LUK, Ka-Bik LAI, Philip Kam-Tao LI and Cheuk Chun SZETO

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:367

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Estimation of GFR (eGFR) using formulae based on serum creatinine concentrations are commonly used to assess kidney function. Physical exercise can increase creatinine turnover and lean mass; therefore, this m...

    Authors: Kassia S. Beetham, Erin J. Howden, Nicole M. Isbel and Jeff S. Coombes

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:366

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Immunosuppressive treatment will predispose an idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) patient to opportunistic infections. Disease severity is one of the main concerns for making the treatment decision. Urina...

    Authors: Ziyong Tang, Yue Wang, Liyuan Tao, Yanhong Guo, Yimu Zheng and Danxia Zheng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:357

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2019 20:50

  47. Serum anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibody was correlated with disease activity of membranous nephropathy(MN). The predictive value of antibody titer changes on immunosuppressive response remains un...

    Authors: Chao Li, Hang Li, Yu-bing Wen, Xue-mei Li and Xue-wang Li

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:354

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) assessment of kidney allografts mainly focuses on graft rejection. However, studies on delayed graft function (DGF) without acute rejection are still lacking. The aim o...

    Authors: Nordeval Cavalcante Araújo and José Hermógenes Rocco Suassuna

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:351

    Content type: Research article

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