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Clinical Research

The Clinical Research section considers both interventional and non-interventional clinical research studies, including, but not limited to, controlled trials and case-control studies. This section does not consider basic experimental research, large epidemiological studies, or case reports. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and epidemiological studies should be directed to the Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section, and case reports should be directed to our dedicated Case Reports section. 

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  1. Echocardiographic characteristics across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been well described. We assessed the echocardiographic characteristics of patients with preserved renal function a...

    Authors: Thomas A. Mavrakanas, Aisha Khattak, Karandeep Singh and David M. Charytan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:176

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The management of proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) comprises timely and coordinated immunosuppressive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness and safety profile of low dose mycoph...

    Authors: Arun Sedhain, Rajani Hada, Rajendra K. Agrawal, Gandhi R. Bhattarai and Anil Baral

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:175

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Current guidelines regarding plasma-sampling techniques for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination are inconsistent. Single-sample methods are commonly believed not to be precise enough to meet clinica...

    Authors: Yong Zhang, Zhun Sui, Ze Yu, Tai Feng Li, Wan Yu Feng and Li Zuo

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:174

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a substantial health burden in sub-Saharan Africa, with risk factors ranging from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Hyperuricemia has been recently identified as a f...

    Authors: Marie Doualla, Marie Patrice Halle, Jude Moutchia, Steve Tegang and Gloria Ashuntantang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:169

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Organ donation after brain death (DBD) is the standard strategy for organ transplantation; however, the concept of brain death is not universally accepted due to cultural beliefs and barriers amongst billions ...

    Authors: Qipeng Sun, Honglan Zhou, Ronghua Cao, Minzhuan Lin, Xuefeng Hua, Liangqing Hong, Zhengyu Huang, Ning Na, Ruiming Cai, Gang Wang, Fanhang Meng and Qiquan Sun

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:164

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery is a frequent complication and several risk factors increasing its incidence have already been characterized. This study evaluates the influence of preoperat...

    Authors: T. Kaufeld, K. A. Foerster, T. Schilling, J. T. Kielstein, J. Kaufeld, M. Shrestha, H. G. Haller, A. Haverich and B. M. W. Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:161

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) guidelines assign the same stage of AKI to patients whether they fulfil urine output criteria, serum creatinine criteria or both ...

    Authors: Samuel H. Howitt, Stuart W. Grant, Camila Caiado, Eric Carlson, Dowan Kwon, Ioannis Dimarakis, Ignacio Malagon and Charles McCollum

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:149

    Content type: Research article

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  8. There are no guidelines for transitioning patients from chronic kidney disease stage 5 to hemodialysis. We conducted this study to determine if there are uniform patterns in how nephrologists transition patien...

    Authors: Mary C. Mallappallil, Steven Fishbane, Rimda Wanchoo, Edgar Lerma, Andrea Roche-Recinos and Moro Salifu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:147

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Severe infections are common complications of immunosuppressive treatment for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) with renal involvement. We investigated the clinical charact...

    Authors: Liu Yang, Honglang Xie, Zhengzhao Liu, Yinghua Chen, Jinquan Wang, Haitao Zhang, Yongchun Ge and Weixin Hu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:138

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Female sex has been included as a risk factor in models developed to predict the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with cardiac surgery, aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity and contrast-induced nephropath...

    Authors: Joel Neugarten, Ladan Golestaneh and Nitin V. Kolhe

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:131

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Both peritoneal small solute transport and peritoneal protein clearance are closely linked to outcomes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, the associated factors of these two components are not full...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Shi, Hao Yan, Jiangzi Yuan, He Zhang, Jiaying Huang, Zhaohui Ni, Jiaqi Qian and Wei Fang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:119

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The calcimimetic agent cinacalcet is effective for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in dialysis patients. Changes to reimbursement of cinacalcet in Australia provided an opportunity to as...

    Authors: Irene Ruderman, Edward R. Smith, Nigel D. Toussaint, Tim D. Hewitson and Stephen G. Holt

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:113

    Content type: Research article

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  13. This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal changes in cardiac structure and function in incident-automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients.

    Authors: Jin-Bor Chen, Ben-Chung Cheng, Wen-Hao Liu, Shang-Chih Liao, Mao-Young Morgan Fu, Sin-Hua Moi and Cheng-Hong Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:109

    Content type: Research article

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  14. African Americans have persistently poor access to living donor kidney transplants (LDKT). We conducted a small randomized trial to provide preliminary evidence of the effect of informational decision support ...

    Authors: L. Ebony Boulware, Patti L. Ephraim, Jessica Ameling, LaPricia Lewis-Boyer, Hamid Rabb, Raquel C. Greer, Deidra C. Crews, Bernard G. Jaar, Priscilla Auguste, Tanjala S. Purnell, Julio A. Lamprea-Monteleagre, Tope Olufade, Luis Gimenez, Courtney Cook, Tiffany Campbell, Ashley Woodall…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:107

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common post-cardiac surgery complication and influences patient morbidity and prognosis. This study was designed to identify preoperative candidate urine biomarkers in patients u...

    Authors: Michael L. Merchant, Michael E. Brier, Mark S. Slaughter, Jon B. Klein and Kenneth R. McLeish

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:102

    Content type: Research article

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  16. We hypothesized that the use of actual body weight might lead to more frequent misdiagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) than when ideal body weight is used in underweight and/or obese patients. We examined wh...

    Authors: Shinshu Katayama, Kansuke Koyama, Yuya Goto, Toshitaka Koinuma, Ken Tonai, Jun Shima, Masahiko Wada and Shin Nunomiya

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:101

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The transition from pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) to renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a stressful event. Anxiety, depression and stress are frequent conditions in this population, and might play ...

    Authors: Cicero Italo L. Bezerra, Bruno C. Silva and Rosilene M. Elias

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:98

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Increasing evidence has shown that albuminuria is related to serum uric acid. Little is known about whether this association may be interrelated via renal handling of uric acid. Therefore, we aim to study urin...

    Authors: Fengqin Li, Hui Guo, Jianan Zou, Weijun Chen, Yijun Lu, Xiaoli Zhang, Chensheng Fu, Jing Xiao and Zhibin Ye

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:95

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Acute kidney injury (AKI), as defined by peak increase in serum creatinine, is independently associated with increased risk of mortality and length of stay. Studies have suggested that the duration of AKI may ...

    Authors: Swati Mehta, Kinsuk Chauhan, Achint Patel, Shanti Patel, Rachel Pinotti, Girish N. Nadkarni, Chirag R. Parikh and Steven G. Coca

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:91

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Beta Trace Protein (BTP) is a promising marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Equations to estimate GFR using BTP have been proposed. Very little is known about BTP’s production and metabolism. It has be...

    Authors: Debarati Chakraborty, Ayub Akbari, Greg A. Knoll, Jennifer A. Flemming, Catherine Lowe, Shareef Akbari and Christine A. White

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:87

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Aortic stenosis (AS) is common in patients on dialysis as well as in the general population. AS leads to difficulty with dialysis therapy because of unstable conditions such as intradialytic hypotension due to...

    Authors: Daijo Inaguma, Yuji Sasakawa, Noriko Suzuki, Eri Ito, Kazuo Takahashi, Hiroki Hayashi, Shigehisa Koide, Midori Hasegawa and Yukio Yuzawa

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:80

    Content type: Study protocol

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  22. The high cost, complexity of the available protocols, and metabolic complications are the major barriers that impede the clinical utilization of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) for sustained low efficie...

    Authors: Ming Wen, Claudius Küchle, Dominik Steubl, Robin Satanovskji, Uwe Heemann, Yana Suttmann, Susanne Angermann, Stephan Kemmner, Lisa Rehbehn, Monika Huber, Christine Hauser, Christoph Schmaderer, Anna-Lena Reichelt, Bernhard Haller and Lutz Renders

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:79

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Proteinuria is well recognised as a marker of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as a risk factor for progression of CKD among those with known CKD, and as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death among bo...

    Authors: Tracey Ying, Philip Clayton, Chetana Naresh and Steven Chadban

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:55

    Content type: Research article

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  24. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a member of the natriuretic peptide family and have been implicated to be involved in maintaining vascular homeostasis and acting as a cardiac chronotropic agent in experime...

    Authors: Lulu Wang, Wenjin Liu, Yanting Yu, Lei Jiang and Junwei Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:50

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Rural areas in the state of New Mexico have been the “ground-zero” for the epidemic of diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in the United States. However, there is limited research about risk factors of diabe...

    Authors: Antonin Jaros, Hafiz A. Sroya, Venita K. Wolfe, Vikas Ghai, Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Kamran Shaffi, Kai Wang, Vernon Shane Pankratz, Mark L. Unruh and Christos Argyropoulos

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:47

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often observed in critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Non-recovery from AKI has a negative impact on the prognosis of affected patients and...

    Authors: Fabienne Aregger, Dominik E. Uehlinger, Gerhard Fusch, Aldin Bahonjic, Rene Pschowski, Michael Walter and Joerg C. Schefold

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:44

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus but the risk of young adults aged 18 to 40 years with impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose (IG...

    Authors: Ferozkhan Jadhakhan, Tom Marshall, Ronan Ryan and Paramjit Gill

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:42

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Surveys using traditional measures of nutritional status indicate that muscle wasting is common among persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Up to 75% of adults undergoing maintenance dialysis show some...

    Authors: Joanne Reid, Helen R. Noble, Gary Adamson, Andrew Davenport, Ken Farrington, Denis Fouque, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, John Mallett, C. McKeaveney, S. Porter, David S. Seres, Joanne Shields, Adrian Slee, Miles D. Witham and Alexander P. Maxwell

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:38

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Anemia is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated hepcidin concentrations are an important mediator of disordered iron metabolism, a key mechanism underlying anemia of CKD. Vitamin D was rec...

    Authors: Bhupesh Panwar, Diane McCann, Gordana Olbina, Mark Westerman and Orlando M. Gutiérrez

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:35

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) represents the key enzyme in catecholamine degradation. Recent studies suggest that the COMT rs4680 polymorphism is associated with the response to endogenous and exogen...

    Authors: Mehmet Oezkur, Attila Magyar, Phillip Thomas, Andreas Reif, Stefan Störk, Peter U. Heuschmann, Rainer G. Leyh and Martin Wagner

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:34

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Precise renal histopathological diagnosis will guide therapy strategy in patients with lupus nephritis. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applicable noninvasive tech...

    Authors: Huilan Shi, Junya Jia, Dong Li, Li Wei, Wenya Shang and Zhenfeng Zheng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:33

    Content type: Technical advance

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  32. The prognostic effect of gender on immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is not clear. We explored gender-related differences in clinicopathological features and renal outcomes in IgAN.

    Authors: Wei Deng, Xiaojun Tan, Qian Zhou, Zhen Ai, Wenting Liu, Wei Chen, Xueqing Yu and Qiongqiong Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:31

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Obstetric-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is thought to be a key contributor to the overall burden of AKI in low resource settings, causing significant and preventable morbidity and mortality. However, epide...

    Authors: William R. Cooke, Ulla K. Hemmilä, Alison L. Craik, Chimwemwe J. Mandula, Priscilla Mvula, Ausbert Msusa, Gavin Dreyer and Rhys Evans

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:25

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is important for diagnosis and risk stratification in chronic kidney disease and for selection of living donors. Ethnic differences have required correct...

    Authors: Vivek Kumar, Ashok Kumar Yadav, Yoshinari Yasuda, Masaru Horio, Vinod Kumar, Nancy Sahni, Krishan L. Gupta, Seiichi Matsuo, Harbir Singh Kohli and Vivekanand Jha

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:22

    Content type: Research article

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  35. For patients unable to receive heparin anticoagulation during haemodialysis, saline flushes to reduce circuit clotting are often the norm. Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) although effective is not used ...

    Authors: Eng Kuang Lim, Ying-ying T Seow, Shun E Chen, Gao Yang, Min Er Liaw and Shimi Isaac

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:16

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Recently there has been a progressive loss of specialty related skills for nephrologists. Among the skills we find the kidney biopsy that has a central role in diagnosis of renal parenchymal disease. One of th...

    Authors: Vittoria Esposito, Giulia Mazzon, Paola Baiardi, Massimo Torreggiani, Luca Semeraro, Davide Catucci, Marco Colucci, Alice Mariotto, Fabrizio Grosjean, Giacomo Bovio and Ciro Esposito

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:14

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is increasingly used throughout the world. Although the procedure itself is fairly standardized, it is yet unknown how the underlying disease entities influence the key coordi...

    Authors: Julius J. Schmidt, Firas Asper, Gunilla Einecke, Gabriele Eden, Carsten Hafer and Jan T. Kielstein

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:12

    Content type: Research article

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  38. C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a rare, but severe glomerular disease with grim prognosis. The complex pathogenesis is just unfolding, and involves acquired as well as inherited dysregulation of the alternative pat...

    Authors: Thomas Welte, Frederic Arnold, Julia Kappes, Maximilian Seidl, Karsten Häffner, Carsten Bergmann, Gerd Walz and Elke Neumann-Haefelin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2018 19:7

    Content type: Research article

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  39. High-dose methylprednisolone pulses were one of the main treatments for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides (AAV) but had obvious side effects. We aimed to know the impact o...

    Authors: Yanhong Ma, Fei Han, Liangliang Chen, Hongya Wang, Haidongqing Han, Binfeng Yu, Ying Xu and Jianghua Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:381

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The United States is faced with an unprecedented epidemic of drug abuse. Every year thousands of Americans visit the emergency departments all over the country with illicit drug related complaints. These drugs...

    Authors: Kanaan Mansoor, Murad Kheetan, Saba Shahnawaz, Anna P. Shapiro, Eva Patton-Tackett, Larry Dial, Gary Rankin, Prasanna Santhanam, Antonios H. Tzamaloukas, Tibor Nadasdy, Joseph I. Shapiro and Zeid J. Khitan

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:379

    Content type: Research article

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  41. In ANCA-associated vasculitis the acute phase of the disease is often preceded by prodromal symptoms. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relation between the duration of the prodromal phase and re...

    Authors: Eline Houben, Stefanie L. Groenland, Joost W. van der Heijden, Alexandre E. Voskuyl, Hiëronymus J. Doodeman and Erik L. Penne

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:378

    Content type: Research article

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  42. To evaluate the incidence of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and rewarming in comatose patients resuscitated from Cardiac Arrest (CA).

    Authors: Silvia De Rosa, Massimo De Cal, Michael Joannidis, Gianluca Villa, Jose Luis Salas Pacheco, Grazia Maria Virzì, Sara Samoni, Fiorella D’ippoliti, Stefano Marcante, Federico Visconti, Antonella Lampariello, Marina Zannato, Silvio Marafon, Raffaele Bonato and Claudio Ronco

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:376

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Aim of our study is to describe, in people with CKD, the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes with increasing age. The prevalence of CKD in Western populations, where longevity is the norm, is...

    Authors: Usman Mahmood, Helen G. Healy, Adrian Kark, Anne Cameron, Zaimin Wang, Rajitha Abeysekera and Wendy E. Hoy

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:372

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Though on-line intermittent hemodiafiltration (OL-IHDF) is a routine therapy for chronic dialysis patients, it is not yet widespread used in critically ill patients. This study was undergone to evaluate effici...

    Authors: Kada Klouche, Laurent Amigues, Marion Morena, Vincent Brunot, Anne Marie Dupuy, Audrey Jaussent, Marie Christine Picot, Noémie Besnard, Delphine Daubin and Jean Paul Cristol

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:371

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Aldosterone is elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may be involved in hypertension. Surprisingly, the determinants of the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and its role in hypertension are not we...

    Authors: Christina M. Gant, Gozewijn D. Laverman, Liffert Vogt, Maartje C. J. Slagman, Hiddo J. L. Heerspink, Femke Waanders, Marc H. Hemmelder and Gerjan Navis

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:370

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Several equations have been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The common equations used were derived from populations predominantly comprised of Caucasians with chronic kidney disease (C...

    Authors: Geoffrey Omuse, Daniel Maina, Jane Mwangi, Caroline Wambua, Alice Kanyua, Elizabeth Kagotho, Angela Amayo, Peter Ojwang and Rajiv Erasmus

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:369

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is an important technique providing relevant information to guide diagnosis and treatment in renal disease. As an invasive procedure it has complications. Most studies up to dat...

    Authors: R. Haridian Sosa-Barrios, Victor Burguera, Nuria Rodriguez-Mendiola, Cristina Galeano, Sandra Elias, Gloria Ruiz-Roso, Sara Jimenez-Alvaro, Fernando Liaño and Maite Rivera-Gorrin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:365

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Accurate measurement of renal function is important: however, radiolabelled gold standard measurement of GFR is highly expensive and can only be used on a very limited scale. We aim to compare the performance ...

    Authors: Maisarah Jalalonmuhali, Soo Kun Lim, Mohammad Nazri Md Shah and Kok Peng Ng

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:363

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Recent studies have demonstrated that red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often anemic and have high RD...

    Authors: Yueh-An Lu, Pei-Chun Fan, Cheng-Chia Lee, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Ya-Chung Tian, Chih-Wei Yang, Yung-Chang Chen and Chih-Hsiang Chang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2017 18:361

    Content type: Research article

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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