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Epidemiology and Health Outcomes

The Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section considers manuscripts describing epidemiological studies relating to the field of nephrology. The section also considers systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Both qualitative and quantitative studies discussing health outcomes research and outcome measures are also considered by this section. Research related to clinical practice guidelines should be directed to the dedicated Guidelines and Policy section.

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  1. Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important indicator of medical treatment and is a strong predictor of disability and mortality. The literature has shown mixed evidence about whether kidney transpl...

    Authors: Adnan Lutfi Sarhan, Raya H. Jarareh and Mujahed Shraim

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:210

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is a well-known marker of proximal tubular impairment. We evaluated the relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and levels of L-FAB...

    Authors: Yoshimi Kubota, Aya Higashiyama, Mikio Marumo, Masami Konishi, Yoshiko Yamashita, Tomonori Okamura, Yoshihiro Miyamoto and Ichiro Wakabayashi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:189

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The global burden of kidney disease has increased in recent years worldwide. Risk factors for kidney disease are common in Africa, but data on their prevalence are lacking. This study aims to determine the pre...

    Authors: Gwladys N. Gbaguidi, Corine Y. Houehanou, Salimanou A. Amidou, Jacques Vigan, Dismand S. Houinato and Philippe Lacroix

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:116

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Both keratoconus (KCN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are multifactorial conditions with multiple aetiologies and share several common pathophysiologies. However, the few studies that have described the rela...

    Authors: Ren-Long Jan, Shih-Feng Weng, Jhi-Joung Wang and Yuh-Shin Chang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:109

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill patients is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The appropriateness of RRT initiation is sometimes questioned in elderly patients. Therefore, we soug...

    Authors: Cécile Salathé, Elettra Poli, Marco Altarelli, Nathan Axel Bianchi and Antoine Guillaume Schneider

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:101

    Content type: Research article

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  6. To field test the Disadvantaged Populations eGFR Epidemiology (DEGREE) protocol, outdoor point-of-care (POC) testing for serum creatinine, and a new risk factor module on chronic kidney disease of undetermined...

    Authors: Erika Figueroa-Solis, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras and George L. Delclos

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:88

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Physical frailty has previously been associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to determine whether impaired physical performance at baseline i...

    Authors: Hee-won Jung, In Young Choi, Dong Wook Shin, Kyungdo Han, Jung Eun Yoo, Sohyun Chun and Yongjin Yi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:85

    Content type: Research article

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  8. As chronic kidney disease (CKD) is amongst the current global health challenges, this study is aiming to evaluate the long-term intake of total polyphenol and its subclasses in association with CKD incidence.

    Authors: Parvin Mirmiran, Emad Yuzbashian, Pegah Rahbarinejad, Golaleh Asghari and Fereidoun Azizi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:84

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Associations between microvascular variation and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported previously. Non-invasive retinal fundus imaging enables evaluation of the microvascular network and may offer in...

    Authors: Euan N. Paterson, Chris Cardwell, Thomas J. MacGillivray, Emanuele Trucco, Alexander S. Doney, Paul Foster, Alexander P. Maxwell and Gareth J. McKay

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:72

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes, is the primary risk factor for dialysis, cardiovascular diseases, and mortality. Dietary fatty acids (FAs) have been revealed to be related with cardiova...

    Authors: Takuro Okamura, Hanako Nakajima, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Saori Majima, Takafumi Senmaru, Emi Ushigome, Naoko Nakanishi, Masahide Hamaguchi, Mai Asano, Masahiro Yamazaki, Hiroshi Takakuwa and Michiaki Fukui

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:68

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Individuals undergoing hemodialysis in the United States frequently report pain and receive three-fold more opioid prescriptions than the general population. While opioid use is appropriate for select patients...

    Authors: Matthew Daubresse, G. Caleb Alexander, Deidra C. Crews, Dorry L. Segev, Krista L. Lentine and Mara A. McAdams-DeMarco

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:65

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Nephrology 2021 22:133

  12. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs among patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and has also been indicated to be associated with in-hospital mortality. Remdesivir has been authorized for the treatment ...

    Authors: Zhenjian Xu, Ying Tang, Qiuyan Huang, Sha Fu, Xiaomei Li, Baojuan Lin, Anping Xu and Junzhe Chen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:52

    Content type: Research article

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  13. This study estimated the prevalence and risk factors for decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in those without known hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or heavy proteinuria as a surrogate...

    Authors: Andrea Ruiz-Alejos, Ben Caplin, J. Jaime Miranda, Neil Pearce and Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:37

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Hemodialysis is considered a major therapeutic method for patients with chronic kidney disease. Pruritus is a common complaint of hemodialysis patients. The 5-D pruritus scale is amongst the most common tools ...

    Authors: Amin Kordi Yoosefinejad, Fatemeh Karjalian, Marzieh Momennasab and Shahrokh Ezzatzadegan Jahromi

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2021 22:16

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Illness perceptions have been shown to predict a range of psychosocial and clinical outcomes in kidney disease; including quality of life, distress, treatment adherence and even survival in end-stage renal dis...

    Authors: Priscilla Muscat, John Weinman, Emanuel Farrugia, Liberato Camilleri and Joseph Chilcot

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:537

    Content type: Research article

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  16. An increase of the frequency of uric acid urinary stones compared to calcium-containing ones has been recently described. This study was aimed at assessing the frequency of different types of urinary stones in...

    Authors: Alberto Trinchieri, Alessandro Maletta, Giovanni Simonelli, Luca Boeri, Elisa De Lorenzis and Emanuele Montanari

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:535

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Dialysis recovery time (DRT) surveys capture the perceived time after HD to return to performing regular activities. Prior studies suggest the majority of HD patients report a DRT > 2 h. However, the profiles ...

    Authors: Murilo Guedes, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Juliana El Ghoz Leme, Yue Jiao, Jochen G. Raimann, Yuedong Wang, Peter Kotanko, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Ravi Thadhani, Franklin W. Maddux, Len A. Usvyat and John W. Larkin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:529

    Content type: Research article

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  18. End stage renal disease (ESRD) describes the most severe stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD), when patients need dialysis or renal transplant. There is often a delay in recognizing, diagnosing, and treating ...

    Authors: Zvi Segal, Dan Kalifa, Kira Radinsky, Bar Ehrenberg, Guy Elad, Gal Maor, Maor Lewis, Muhammad Tibi, Liat Korn and Gideon Koren

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:518

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Increase in the number of cases in Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka has become a health issue of national concern. Even though, Northern Province is not identified as a high-risk ...

    Authors: Kalaivani Gobalarajah, Prabagar Subramaniam, Uthpala Apekshani Jayawardena, Gobalarajah Rasiah, Sittampalam Rajendra and Jasotha Prabagar

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:507

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Metabolic healthy obesity (MHO), a phenotype of obesity, seems to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, MHO has a close relationship with a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome ...

    Authors: Shasha Yu, Xiaofan Guo, Guang Xiao Li, Hongmei Yang, Liqiang Zheng and Yingxian Sun

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:505

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by its asymptomatic nature until an end stage, is one of the most common public health problems in the world. Thus, a regular checkup, especially for those ...

    Authors: Meseret Derbew Molla, Maria Degef, Abebe Bekele, Zeleke Geto, Feyissa Challa, Tadesse Lejisa, Tigist Getahun, Meron Sileshi, Yosef Tolcha, Genet Ashebir and Daniel Seifu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:494

    Content type: Research article

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  22. People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high levels of co-morbidity and polypharmacy placing them at increased risk of prescribing-related harm. Tools for assessing prescribing safety in the general popu...

    Authors: Fiona Smith, Samantha Hayward, Barnaby Hole, George Kimpton, Christine Sluman, Penny Whiting and Fergus Caskey

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:493

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health concern and diabetes is one of the main risk factors for its occurrence and progression. The aim of this research is to determine the prevalence of chroni...

    Authors: Zaher Nazzal, Zakaria Hamdan, Dunia Masri, Oday Abu-Kaf and Mohammad Hamad

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:484

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The largest data on the epidemiology of primary glomerular diseases (PGDs) are obtained from the databases of countries or centers. Here, we present the extended results of the Primary Glomerular Diseases Stud...

    Authors: Aydin Turkmen, Abdullah Sumnu, Egemen Cebeci, Halil Yazici, Necmi Eren, Nurhan Seyahi, Kamil Dilek, Fatih Dede, Ulver Derici, Abdulkadir Unsal, Garip Sahin, Murat Sipahioglu, Mahmut Gok, Erhan Tatar, Belda Dursun, Savas Sipahi…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:481

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to ALT ratio (AST/ALT ratio) have been shown to be related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or insulin resistance, which was associated w...

    Authors: Hirotaka Ochiai, Takako Shirasawa, Takahiko Yoshimoto, Satsue Nagahama, Akihiro Watanabe, Ken Sakamoto and Akatsuki Kokaze

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:471

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has substantially impacted the provision of medical services. During the pandemic, many medical services, including facilities providing care to patients with end stage rena...

    Authors: Hossein Akbarialiabad, Shahin Kavousi, Aria Ghahramani, Bahar Bastani and Nasrollah Ghahramani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:470

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There is insufficient population-based data on CKD in Nigeria that is required to es...

    Authors: Timothy Olusegun Olanrewaju, Ademola Aderibigbe, Ademola Alabi Popoola, Kolawole Thomas Braimoh, Mikhail Olayinka Buhari, Olanrewaju Timothy Adedoyin, Sulyman Alege Kuranga, Sikiru Abayomi Biliaminu, Adindu Chijioke, Abdulwahab Akanbi Ajape, Diederick E Grobbee, Peter J Blankestijn and Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:467

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Renal function is a key factor of cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been widely used as a marker of early subclinical atherosclerosis. The determinants of cystatin C, a novel mar...

    Authors: Chiu-Shong Liu, Chia-Ing Li, Yuh-Cherng Guo, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chung-Hsiang Liu, Mu-Cyun Wang, Chuan-Wei Yang, Shing-Yu Yang, Tsai-Chung Li and Cheng-Chieh Lin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:454

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) has been an unprecedented period. The disease afflicts multiple organ systems, with acute kidney injury (AKI) a major complication in seriously ill patients....

    Authors: Sam Kant, Steven P. Menez, Mohamed Hanouneh, Derek M. Fine, Deidra C. Crews, Daniel C. Brennan, C. John Sperati and Bernard G. Jaar

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:449

    Content type: Review

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  30. Very less is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with kidney diseases in Nepal. This study examined HRQOL among haemodialysis and kidney transplant recipients in Nepal.

    Authors: Kamal Ranabhat, Pratik Khanal, Shiva Raj Mishra, Anu Khanal, Sangita Tripathi and Mahesh Raj Sigdel

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:433

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Chronic kidney disease has become a major health problem around the world. It displays no symptoms until the later stages. Therefore, its early detection is crucial, and a suitable intervention is necessary to...

    Authors: Haryati Anuar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Abdul Halim Abdul Gafor and Mohd Ihsani Mahmood

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:425

    Content type: Research article

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  32. A series of policy changes in 2011 altered reimbursement arrangements and guidance on use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with anaemia in the US. While the poli...

    Authors: Nga TQ. Nguyen, Alexander P. Maxwell, Michael Donnelly and Ciaran O’Neill

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:423

    Content type: Research article

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  33. People with end-stage kidney disease have an increased risk of active tuberculosis (TB). Previous systematic reviews have demonstrated that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of sev...

    Authors: Judith Ruzangi, Masao Iwagami, Liam Smeeth, Punam Mangtani and Dorothea Nitsch

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:420

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Infection with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, overwhelming healthcare system...

    Authors: Samira Bell, Jacqueline Campbell, Jackie McDonald, Martin O’Neill, Chrissie Watters, Katharine Buck, Zoe Cousland, Mark Findlay, Nazir I. Lone, Wendy Metcalfe, Shona Methven, Robert Peel, Alison Almond, Vinod Sanu, Elaine Spalding, Peter C. Thomson…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:419

    Content type: Research article

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  35. This scoping review sought to summarize available data on the prevalence, associated factors, etiology, comorbidities, treatment, cost and mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Cameroon.

    Authors: Jerry Brown Aseneh, Ben-Lawrence A. Kemah, Stephane Mabouna, Mbeng Emmanuel Njang, Domin Sone Majunda Ekane and Valirie Ndip Agbor

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:409

    Content type: Review

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  36. An epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause (CKDu) is occurring in rural communities in tropical regions of low-and middle-income countries in South America and India. Little information is availabl...

    Authors: Sophie A. Hamilton, Wisdom P. Nakanga, Josephine E. Prynn, Amelia C. Crampin, Daniela Fecht, Paolo Vineis, Ben Caplin, Neil Pearce and Moffat J. Nyirenda

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:387

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Excess cadmium (Cd) intake poses a general risk to health and to the kidneys in particular. Among indices of renal dysfunction under Cd burden measures are the urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosidase (UNAG) and urina...

    Authors: Yuting Li, Hongmei Wang, Jie Yu, Qiong Yan, Honggang Hu, Lishu Zhang, Tian Tian, Xianglei Peng, Shuo Yang and Shen Ke

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:385

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Previous studies have identified retinal microvascular features associated with renal dysfunction. Biopsies are necessary to confirm kidney microvascular damage and retinal imaging may enable evaluation of mic...

    Authors: R. A. O’Neill, A. P. Maxwell, F. Kee, I. Young, B. McGuinness, R. E. Hogg and McKay GJ

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:382

    Content type: Research article

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  39. To determine the prevalence, distribution, concordance and associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) determined by five glomerular filtration rate (GFR) formulae in urban black residents of Cape Town.

    Authors: Nasheeta Peer, Jaya George, Carl Lombard, Krisela Steyn, Naomi Levitt and Andre-Pascal Kengne

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:372

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of cardiac surgery. However, the incidence rate of AKI in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) greatly varies between reports owing to the different d...

    Authors: Dandan Li, Zhaozhuo Niu, Qiang Huang, Wei Sheng and Tianyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:350

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Combined peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) therapy (combined therapy) has numerous clinical benefits and should be emphasized for PD patients encountering technique failure.

    Authors: Mu-Chi Chung, Tung-Min Yu, Ming-Ju Wu, Ya-Wen Chuang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Cheng-Hsu Chen, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Peir-Haur Hung, Jein-Wen Chen and Chi-Jung Chung

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:348

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Malaysia was 9.07% in 2011. We aim to determine the current CKD prevalence in Malaysia and its associated risk factors.

    Authors: Thamil Arasu Saminathan, Lai Seong Hooi, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Loke Meng Ong, Sunita Bavanandan, Wan Shakira Rodzlan Hasani, Esther Zhao Zhi Tan, Irene Wong, Halizah Mat Rifin, Tania Gayle Robert, Hasimah Ismail, Norazizah Ibrahim Wong, Ghazali Ahmad, Rashidah Ambak, Fatimah Othman, Hamizatul Akmal Abd Hamid…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:344

    Content type: Research article

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  43. In the general population, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Waist circumference (WC), a component of the MetS criteria, is linked to visceral obesity, whic...

    Authors: Arnaud Delautre, François Chantrel, Yves Dimitrov, Alexandre Klein, Olivier Imhoff, Clotilde Muller, Nicole Schauder, Thierry Hannedouche and Thierry Krummel

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:343

    Content type: Research article

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  44. There is considerable state-level variation in the incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D). However, little is known about reasons for this geographic variation.

    Authors: Zijin Chen, Charles E. McCulloch, Neil R. Powe, Michael Heung, Rajiv Saran, Meda E. Pavkov, Nilka Rios Burrows, Raymond K. Hsu and Chi-yuan Hsu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:336

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Hyperkalemia (HK) can affect health outcomes and quality of life, as it is referred to as a potentially life-threatening condition caused by an increased serum potassium concentration in the blood. Patients su...

    Authors: Jennifer Scarlet Haas, Kim-Sarah Krinke, Christopher Maas, Thomas Hardt, Isabella Barck and Sebastian Braun

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:332

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Hemodialysis patients have a high risk of mortality. The most common causes of death are cardiovascular disease and infection. The potential hazard or benefit associated with vitamin D use and cardiovascular o...

    Authors: Jo-Yen Chao, Chung-Yi Li, Ming-Cheng Wang and Yea-Huei Kao Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:331

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Likelihood of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) increases with age. We aimed to explore whether the predictability of AKI varies between age groups and assess the volatility of risk factors using electronic...

    Authors: Lijuan Wu, Yong Hu, Xiangzhou Zhang, Weiqi Chen, Alan S. L. Yu, John A. Kellum, Lemuel R. Waitman and Mei Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:321

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Renal biopsy is often required to obtain information for diagnosis, management and prognosis of kidney disease that can be broadly classified into acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Th...

    Authors: Joseph Patrick Burke, Manaf Aljishi, Leo Francis, Wendy Hoy, Dakshinamurthy Divi, Roy Cherian, Jeremy Frazier, Glenda Gobe, Pedro Gois, Sridevi Govindarajulu, Sonny Huynh, Shilpanjali Jesudason, George John, Krishan Madhan, Andrew Mallett, Valli Manickam…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:320

    Content type: Database

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  49. It is controversial for the effect and safety between cinacalcet and other treatments in treating secondary hyperparathyroidism for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

    Authors: Yiting Sun, Binyao Tian, Zitong Sheng, Pengzhi Wan, Tianhua Xu and Li Yao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:316

    Content type: Research article

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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