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Epidemiology and Health Outcomes

The Epidemiology and Health Outcomes section considers manuscripts describing epidemiological studies relating to the field of nephrology. The section also considers systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Both qualitative and quantitative studies discussing health outcomes research and outcome measures are also considered by this section. Research related to clinical practice guidelines should be directed to the dedicated Guidelines and Policy section.

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  1. End stage renal disease (ESRD) describes the most severe stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD), when patients need dialysis or renal transplant. There is often a delay in recognizing, diagnosing, and treating ...

    Authors: Zvi Segal, Dan Kalifa, Kira Radinsky, Bar Ehrenberg, Guy Elad, Gal Maor, Maor Lewis, Muhammad Tibi, Liat Korn and Gideon Koren

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:518

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Increase in the number of cases in Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka has become a health issue of national concern. Even though, Northern Province is not identified as a high-risk ...

    Authors: Kalaivani Gobalarajah, Prabagar Subramaniam, Uthpala Apekshani Jayawardena, Gobalarajah Rasiah, Sittampalam Rajendra and Jasotha Prabagar

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:507

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Metabolic healthy obesity (MHO), a phenotype of obesity, seems to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, MHO has a close relationship with a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome ...

    Authors: Shasha Yu, Xiaofan Guo, Guang Xiao Li, Hongmei Yang, Liqiang Zheng and Yingxian Sun

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:505

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by its asymptomatic nature until an end stage, is one of the most common public health problems in the world. Thus, a regular checkup, especially for those ...

    Authors: Meseret Derbew Molla, Maria Degef, Abebe Bekele, Zeleke Geto, Feyissa Challa, Tadesse Lejisa, Tigist Getahun, Meron Sileshi, Yosef Tolcha, Genet Ashebir and Daniel Seifu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:494

    Content type: Research article

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  5. People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high levels of co-morbidity and polypharmacy placing them at increased risk of prescribing-related harm. Tools for assessing prescribing safety in the general popu...

    Authors: Fiona Smith, Samantha Hayward, Barnaby Hole, George Kimpton, Christine Sluman, Penny Whiting and Fergus Caskey

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:493

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health concern and diabetes is one of the main risk factors for its occurrence and progression. The aim of this research is to determine the prevalence of chroni...

    Authors: Zaher Nazzal, Zakaria Hamdan, Dunia Masri, Oday Abu-Kaf and Mohammad Hamad

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:484

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The largest data on the epidemiology of primary glomerular diseases (PGDs) are obtained from the databases of countries or centers. Here, we present the extended results of the Primary Glomerular Diseases Stud...

    Authors: Aydin Turkmen, Abdullah Sumnu, Egemen Cebeci, Halil Yazici, Necmi Eren, Nurhan Seyahi, Kamil Dilek, Fatih Dede, Ulver Derici, Abdulkadir Unsal, Garip Sahin, Murat Sipahioglu, Mahmut Gok, Erhan Tatar, Belda Dursun, Savas Sipahi…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:481

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to ALT ratio (AST/ALT ratio) have been shown to be related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or insulin resistance, which was associated w...

    Authors: Hirotaka Ochiai, Takako Shirasawa, Takahiko Yoshimoto, Satsue Nagahama, Akihiro Watanabe, Ken Sakamoto and Akatsuki Kokaze

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:471

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has substantially impacted the provision of medical services. During the pandemic, many medical services, including facilities providing care to patients with end stage rena...

    Authors: Hossein Akbarialiabad, Shahin Kavousi, Aria Ghahramani, Bahar Bastani and Nasrollah Ghahramani

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:470

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There is insufficient population-based data on CKD in Nigeria that is required to es...

    Authors: Timothy Olusegun Olanrewaju, Ademola Aderibigbe, Ademola Alabi Popoola, Kolawole Thomas Braimoh, Mikhail Olayinka Buhari, Olanrewaju Timothy Adedoyin, Sulyman Alege Kuranga, Sikiru Abayomi Biliaminu, Adindu Chijioke, Abdulwahab Akanbi Ajape, Diederick E Grobbee, Peter J Blankestijn and Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:467

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Renal function is a key factor of cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) has been widely used as a marker of early subclinical atherosclerosis. The determinants of cystatin C, a novel mar...

    Authors: Chiu-Shong Liu, Chia-Ing Li, Yuh-Cherng Guo, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Wen-Yuan Lin, Chung-Hsiang Liu, Mu-Cyun Wang, Chuan-Wei Yang, Shing-Yu Yang, Tsai-Chung Li and Cheng-Chieh Lin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:454

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) has been an unprecedented period. The disease afflicts multiple organ systems, with acute kidney injury (AKI) a major complication in seriously ill patients....

    Authors: Sam Kant, Steven P. Menez, Mohamed Hanouneh, Derek M. Fine, Deidra C. Crews, Daniel C. Brennan, C. John Sperati and Bernard G. Jaar

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:449

    Content type: Review

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  13. Very less is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with kidney diseases in Nepal. This study examined HRQOL among haemodialysis and kidney transplant recipients in Nepal.

    Authors: Kamal Ranabhat, Pratik Khanal, Shiva Raj Mishra, Anu Khanal, Sangita Tripathi and Mahesh Raj Sigdel

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:433

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Chronic kidney disease has become a major health problem around the world. It displays no symptoms until the later stages. Therefore, its early detection is crucial, and a suitable intervention is necessary to...

    Authors: Haryati Anuar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Abdul Halim Abdul Gafor and Mohd Ihsani Mahmood

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:425

    Content type: Research article

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  15. A series of policy changes in 2011 altered reimbursement arrangements and guidance on use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with anaemia in the US. While the poli...

    Authors: Nga TQ. Nguyen, Alexander P. Maxwell, Michael Donnelly and Ciaran O’Neill

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:423

    Content type: Research article

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  16. People with end-stage kidney disease have an increased risk of active tuberculosis (TB). Previous systematic reviews have demonstrated that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of sev...

    Authors: Judith Ruzangi, Masao Iwagami, Liam Smeeth, Punam Mangtani and Dorothea Nitsch

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:420

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Infection with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, overwhelming healthcare system...

    Authors: Samira Bell, Jacqueline Campbell, Jackie McDonald, Martin O’Neill, Chrissie Watters, Katharine Buck, Zoe Cousland, Mark Findlay, Nazir I. Lone, Wendy Metcalfe, Shona Methven, Robert Peel, Alison Almond, Vinod Sanu, Elaine Spalding, Peter C. Thomson…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:419

    Content type: Research article

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  18. This scoping review sought to summarize available data on the prevalence, associated factors, etiology, comorbidities, treatment, cost and mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Cameroon.

    Authors: Jerry Brown Aseneh, Ben-Lawrence A. Kemah, Stephane Mabouna, Mbeng Emmanuel Njang, Domin Sone Majunda Ekane and Valirie Ndip Agbor

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:409

    Content type: Review

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  19. An epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause (CKDu) is occurring in rural communities in tropical regions of low-and middle-income countries in South America and India. Little information is availabl...

    Authors: Sophie A. Hamilton, Wisdom P. Nakanga, Josephine E. Prynn, Amelia C. Crampin, Daniela Fecht, Paolo Vineis, Ben Caplin, Neil Pearce and Moffat J. Nyirenda

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:387

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Excess cadmium (Cd) intake poses a general risk to health and to the kidneys in particular. Among indices of renal dysfunction under Cd burden measures are the urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosidase (UNAG) and urina...

    Authors: Yuting Li, Hongmei Wang, Jie Yu, Qiong Yan, Honggang Hu, Lishu Zhang, Tian Tian, Xianglei Peng, Shuo Yang and Shen Ke

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:385

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Previous studies have identified retinal microvascular features associated with renal dysfunction. Biopsies are necessary to confirm kidney microvascular damage and retinal imaging may enable evaluation of mic...

    Authors: R. A. O’Neill, A. P. Maxwell, F. Kee, I. Young, B. McGuinness, R. E. Hogg and McKay GJ

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:382

    Content type: Research article

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  22. To determine the prevalence, distribution, concordance and associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) determined by five glomerular filtration rate (GFR) formulae in urban black residents of Cape Town.

    Authors: Nasheeta Peer, Jaya George, Carl Lombard, Krisela Steyn, Naomi Levitt and Andre-Pascal Kengne

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:372

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of cardiac surgery. However, the incidence rate of AKI in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) greatly varies between reports owing to the different d...

    Authors: Dandan Li, Zhaozhuo Niu, Qiang Huang, Wei Sheng and Tianyi Wang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:350

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Combined peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) therapy (combined therapy) has numerous clinical benefits and should be emphasized for PD patients encountering technique failure.

    Authors: Mu-Chi Chung, Tung-Min Yu, Ming-Ju Wu, Ya-Wen Chuang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Cheng-Hsu Chen, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Peir-Haur Hung, Jein-Wen Chen and Chi-Jung Chung

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:348

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Malaysia was 9.07% in 2011. We aim to determine the current CKD prevalence in Malaysia and its associated risk factors.

    Authors: Thamil Arasu Saminathan, Lai Seong Hooi, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff, Loke Meng Ong, Sunita Bavanandan, Wan Shakira Rodzlan Hasani, Esther Zhao Zhi Tan, Irene Wong, Halizah Mat Rifin, Tania Gayle Robert, Hasimah Ismail, Norazizah Ibrahim Wong, Ghazali Ahmad, Rashidah Ambak, Fatimah Othman, Hamizatul Akmal Abd Hamid…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:344

    Content type: Research article

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  26. In the general population, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Waist circumference (WC), a component of the MetS criteria, is linked to visceral obesity, whic...

    Authors: Arnaud Delautre, François Chantrel, Yves Dimitrov, Alexandre Klein, Olivier Imhoff, Clotilde Muller, Nicole Schauder, Thierry Hannedouche and Thierry Krummel

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:343

    Content type: Research article

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  27. There is considerable state-level variation in the incidence of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI-D). However, little is known about reasons for this geographic variation.

    Authors: Zijin Chen, Charles E. McCulloch, Neil R. Powe, Michael Heung, Rajiv Saran, Meda E. Pavkov, Nilka Rios Burrows, Raymond K. Hsu and Chi-yuan Hsu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:336

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Hyperkalemia (HK) can affect health outcomes and quality of life, as it is referred to as a potentially life-threatening condition caused by an increased serum potassium concentration in the blood. Patients su...

    Authors: Jennifer Scarlet Haas, Kim-Sarah Krinke, Christopher Maas, Thomas Hardt, Isabella Barck and Sebastian Braun

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:332

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Hemodialysis patients have a high risk of mortality. The most common causes of death are cardiovascular disease and infection. The potential hazard or benefit associated with vitamin D use and cardiovascular o...

    Authors: Jo-Yen Chao, Chung-Yi Li, Ming-Cheng Wang and Yea-Huei Kao Yang

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:331

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Likelihood of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) increases with age. We aimed to explore whether the predictability of AKI varies between age groups and assess the volatility of risk factors using electronic...

    Authors: Lijuan Wu, Yong Hu, Xiangzhou Zhang, Weiqi Chen, Alan S. L. Yu, John A. Kellum, Lemuel R. Waitman and Mei Liu

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:321

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Renal biopsy is often required to obtain information for diagnosis, management and prognosis of kidney disease that can be broadly classified into acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Th...

    Authors: Joseph Patrick Burke, Manaf Aljishi, Leo Francis, Wendy Hoy, Dakshinamurthy Divi, Roy Cherian, Jeremy Frazier, Glenda Gobe, Pedro Gois, Sridevi Govindarajulu, Sonny Huynh, Shilpanjali Jesudason, George John, Krishan Madhan, Andrew Mallett, Valli Manickam…

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:320

    Content type: Database

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  32. It is controversial for the effect and safety between cinacalcet and other treatments in treating secondary hyperparathyroidism for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

    Authors: Yiting Sun, Binyao Tian, Zitong Sheng, Pengzhi Wan, Tianhua Xu and Li Yao

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:316

    Content type: Research article

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  33. To explore, in a large group of patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM), renal function decline in terms of the slope of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over time, and to find out how classical ri...

    Authors: Peter Bramlage, Stefanie Lanzinger, Eva Hess, Simon Fahrner, Christoph H. J. Heyer, Mathias Friebe, Ivo Buschmann, Thomas Danne, Reinhard W. Holl and Jochen Seufert

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:312

    Content type: Research article

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  34. For chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, management of nutritional status is critical for delaying progression to end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this study is to provide the basis for personalized n...

    Authors: Yeon Kyung Seo, Hyesu Lee, Hyunsuk Kim, Tae Yeon Kim, Hyunjin Ryu, Dal Lae Ju, Miyoung Jang, Kook-Hwan Oh, Curie Ahn and Sung Nim Han

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:301

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney stones are common in Taiwan; in particular, CKD has a high prevalence but low self-awareness rate. CKD-related risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and nephrotox...

    Authors: Tzung-Fang Chuang, Hung-Chang Hung, Shu-Fen Li, Mei-Wen Lee, Jar-Yuan Pai and Chin-Tun Hung

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:292

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing epidemic globally that is associated with adverse health outcomes including end stage kidney disease (ESKD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and death. American Indi...

    Authors: Mark L. Unruh, Soraya Arzhan, Harold I. Feldman, Helen C. Looker, Robert G. Nelson, Thomas Faber, David Johnson, Linda Son-Stone, Vernon S. Pankratz, Larissa Myaskovsky and Vallabh O. Shah

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:291

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Proteinuria, a marker of kidney injury, may be related to skeletal muscle loss. Whether the severity of proteinuria is associated with physical performance is unclear.

    Authors: Chia-Hao Fan, Ssu-Chin Lin, Kun-Zhe Tsai, Tsung-Jui Wu, Yen-Po Lin, Yu-Kai Lin, Shao-Chi Lu, Chih-Lu Han and Gen-Min Lin

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:287

    Content type: Research article

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  38. An appropriate diet is an important determinant of kidney health. However, the association between vegetarian diets and renal function is unclear. We aimed to study the association between vegetarian diets and...

    Authors: Kaijie Xu, Xueying Cui, Bian Wang, Qingya Tang, Jianfang Cai and Xiuhua Shen

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:268

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Dietary and lifestyle factors may play an important role in the increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis. We aimed to review and quantify the associations between lifestyle factors and incident nephrolithiasis...

    Authors: Bing-Biao Lin, Ming-En Lin, Rong-Hua Huang, Ying-Kai Hong, Bing-Liang Lin and Xue-Jun He

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:267

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Patients receiving chronic hemodialysis treatments are at a higher risk of fracture compared to the general population. While the use of heparin during dialysis is crucial to avoid thrombosis of the extracorpo...

    Authors: Hind Harrak, Emilie René, Noor Alsalemi, Naoual Elftouh and Jean-Philippe Lafrance

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:261

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The impact of anemia treatment with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is controversial, particularly regarding optimal h...

    Authors: Murilo Guedes, Camila R. Guetter, Lucas H. O. Erbano, Andre G. Palone, Jarcy Zee, Bruce M. Robinson, Ronald Pisoni, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Roberto Pecoits-Filho and Cristina P. Baena

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:259

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) places a burden on patients, and geographical relocation for easier access to healthcare facilities is a necessity for some. Incidence and factors associated with relocation has...

    Authors: Hicham I Cheikh Hassan, Jenny HC Chen and Karumathil Murali

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:249

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe consequence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that affects approximately 40% of patients. Pathogenic immune complexes that are characteristic of LN deposit in the kidney an...

    Authors: Rachael D. Wright, Fariba Bannerman, Michael W. Beresford and Louise Oni

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:245

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Several studies have reported that lower body mass index (BMI) is associated with high mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Rate of infection-related death in CKD patients is increasing. Ho...

    Authors: Tae Yamamoto, Masaaki Nakayama, Mariko Miyazaki, Hiroshi Sato, Masato Matsushima, Toshinobu Sato and Sadayoshi Ito

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:244

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The extension of the interdialytic interval due to due to dialysis session non-attendance varies according to which session of the week the patient misses. The impact of this on subsequent hospitalization and ...

    Authors: James Fotheringham, Michael T. Smith, Marc Froissart, Florian Kronenberg, Peter Stenvinkel, Jürgen Floege, Kai-Uwe Eckardt and David C. Wheeler

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:218

    Content type: Research article

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  46. There are a growing number of studies on ethnic differences in progression and mortality for pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD), but this literature has yet to be synthesised, particularly for studies o...

    Authors: Hilda O. Hounkpatin, Simon D. S. Fraser, Rory Honney, Gavin Dreyer, Alison Brettle and Paul J. Roderick

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:217

    Content type: Research article

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  47. There is mounting evidence that individuals with kidney disease and kidney stones have an abnormal gut microbiota composition. No studies to date have summarised the evidence to categorise how the gut microbio...

    Authors: Jordan Stanford, Karen Charlton, Anita Stefoska-Needham, Rukayat Ibrahim and Kelly Lambert

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:215

    Content type: Research article

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  48. Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour (too much sitting) can contribute to renal dysfunction. However, the potential benefits of behavioural change (e.g. replacing sedentary behaviour with physical activ...

    Authors: Keisei Kosaki, Koichiro Tanahashi, Masahiro Matsui, Nobuhiko Akazawa, Yosuke Osuka, Kiyoji Tanaka, David W. Dunstan, Neville Owen, Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka and Seiji Maeda

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:211

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Urological malignancy (UM) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an added burden to their overall morbidity and mortality. UM is itself a common cause of CKD. Understanding the associations of UM wi...

    Authors: Rajkumar Chinnadurai, Noel W. Clarke and Philip A. Kalra

    Citation: BMC Nephrology 2020 21:202

    Content type: Research article

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As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID-19 pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.  Please do let us know if you need additional time. Our systems will continue to remind you of the original timelines but we intend to be highly flexible at this time. Thank you.

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