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Table 1 Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics at baseline for the total study population and stratified for reaching the blood pressure treatment target goal

From: Association of blood pressure with decline in renal function and time until the start of renal replacement therapy in pre-dialysis patients: a cohort study

  All
n = 508
Below targetΔ
n = 58
Above targetΔ
n = 450
Age (years) 63 (50-73) 55 (45-71) 64 (50-73)
Sex (% men) 57 57 56
Caucasian (%) 97 97 96
BMI (kg/m2)* 26 ± 5 25 ± 4 26 ± 5
Smokers/quitters < 1 year before inclusion (%) 56 50 57
Primary kidney disease (%)    
   Diabetes mellitus 17 16 17
   Glomerulonephritis 10 14 9
   Interstitial nephritis 16 17 15
   Renal vascular disease/nephrosclerosis 23 17 23
Baseline eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 13.1 ± 5.8 14.0 ± 6.0 13.0 ± 5.7
Proteinuria (g/24 h) 2.0 (0.7-3.9) 1.1 (0.6-2.9) 2.2 (0.8-4.0)
Hemoglobin (g/dl)§ 11.3 ± 1.6 11.4 ± 1.8 11.3 ± 1.6
Co-morbidities (%)    
   Anemia· 47 46 47
   Cardiovascular diseaseγ 36 28 37
   Diabetes mellitus 27 24 27
   Malignancy 11 10 11
Referral to pre-dialysis care by nephrologist (%) 76 78 76
  1. Median with boundaries of interquartile range (IQR) is given for age and proteinuria and for the other continuous variables mean ± standard deviation (SD) is given. Δ Below the target was defined as SBP < 130 and DBP < 80 mmHg and above the target as SBP ≥ 130 and/or DBP ≥ 80 mmHg. * Available for 472 patients. estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated with the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula and available for 445 patients. Available for 405 patients. § Available for 444 patients. · Defined as a hemoglobin level < 11 g/dl. γ Defined as the presence of angina pectoris, coronary disease, and/or myocardial infarction.