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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants by status of ocular fundus examination.

From: Ocular fundus pathology and chronic kidney disease in a Chinese population

  Any ocular fundus pathology   Retinopathy
  Yes (n = 2037) No (n = 7607) P value Yes (n = 1670) P value*
Age (year) 67.9 ± 11.4 48.8 ± 14.7 <0.001 69.2 ± 9.9 <0.001
Male (%) 67.2 59.8 <0.001 68.3 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 3.4 24.3 ± 3.4 <0.001 25.2 ± 3.4 <0.001
Hypertension (%) 60.0 23.3 <0.001 63.8 <0.001
Diabetes (%) 20.2 7.3 <0.001 21.5 <0.001
Cardiovascular disease (%) 14.4 3.3 <0.001 15.7 <0.001
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 3.0 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.8 <0.001 3.0 ± 0.8 <0.001
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 1.4 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 0.56 1.34 ± 0.3 0.57
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 1.6 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.3 0.02 1.7 ± 1.0 0.02
Plasma UA (mg/dL) 5.8 ± 1.5 5.5 ± 1.5 <0.001 5.8 ± 1.5 <0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 81.9 ± 15.3 98.0 ± 16.2 <0.001 81.0 ± 14.6 <0.001
eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2 (%) 9.1 2.3 <0.001 9.0 <0.001
Proteinuria (%) 14.8 10.2 <0.001 15.6 <0.001
Chronic kidney disease (%) 21.0 11.9 <0.001 21.7 <0.001
  1. * Compared with participants without any ocular fundus pathology.
  2. BMI, body mass index; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; UA, uric acid; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.