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Table 2 The association between indicators of kidney damage with ocular fundus pathology.

From: Ocular fundus pathology and chronic kidney disease in a Chinese population

  eGFR ((mL/min/1.73m2) Proteinuria CKD
  ≥90 60-89 <60   
Any ocular fundus pathology      
   Crude OR (95% CI) Reference 5.18 (4.64-5.77) 9.12 (7.30-11.38) 1.53 (1.33-1.77) 1.96 (1.73-2.23)
   Age-, sex- adjusted OR (95% CI) Reference 1.03 (0.89-1.19) 1.26 (0.96-1.65) 1.45 (1.22-1.73) 1.36 (1.17-1.59)
   Fully adjusted OR (95% CI)* Reference 0.97 (0.84-1.13) 1.07 (0.79-1.45) 1.29 (1.07-1.55) 1.18 (0.99-1.41)
Retinopathy      
   Crude OR (95% CI) Reference 5.87 (5.20-6.62) 7.76 (7.77-12.45) 1.63 (1.40-1.90) 2.05 (1.79-2.34)
   Age-, sex- adjusted OR (95% CI) Reference 0.96 (0.82-1.12) 1.05 (0.78-1.40) 1.55 (1.28-1.87) 1.38 (1.17-1.64)
   Fully adjusted OR (95% CI)* Reference 0.91 (0.77-1.07) 0.92 (0.66-1.27) 1.37 (1.12-1.67) 1.19 (0.98-1.44)
  1. * Covariates included in the fully adjusted models were: age (continuous), sex, BMI (<18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25.0-27.0, ≥27.0; kg/m2), hypertension (yes/no), diabetes (yes/no), history of CVD (yes/no)), plasma uric acid (continuous).
  2. The number of participants with any ocular fundus pathology and retinopathy was 2037 and 1670, respectively.
  3. eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; CKD, chronic kidney disease; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.