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Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of KEEP Participants, 2008–2009, by Level of Glycemic Control as Evident by HbA1c

From: Dysglycemia but not lipids is associated with abnormal urinary albumin excretion in diabetic kidney disease: a report from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP)

   Quartiles of Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Compare Q1 & Q4 (pvalue) §
  All, n Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4  
   [4.5 to 6.2] [6.3 to 6.9] [7.0 to 8.1] [8.2 to 18.0]  
n(row percentage) 2141 (100) 576 (26.9) 564 (26.3) 482 (22.5) 519 (24.2)  
Age † 66 (58–75) 69 (61–77) 72 (63–78) 67 (60–75) 59 (50–68) <.0001
Sex       0.2123
   Men 749 (35) 188 (32.6) 183 (32.5) 190 (39.4) 188 (36.2)  
   Women 1392 (65) 388 (67.4) 381 (67.5) 292 (60.6) 331 (63.8)  
Race       <.0001
   NHW 1233 (57.5) 382 (66.3) 354 (62.8) 291 (60.4) 206 (39.7)  
   NHAA 511 (24) 120 (20.8) 129 (22.9) 113 (23.4) 149 (28.7)  
   Hispanic 215 (10) 43 (7.5) 49 (8.7) 38 (7.9) 85 (16.4)  
   Other race 182 (8.5) 31 (5.4) 32 (5.7) 40 (8.3) 79 (15.2)  
≥ High school education 1740 (81.2) 477 (83.5) 467 (83.8) 390 (82.1) 406 (79.0) 0.0546
Current smoker 144 (6.7) 43 (7.6) 29 (5.3) 22 (4.6) 50 (10.0) 0.1773
Hypertensive 1991 (93) 535 (92.9) 525 (93.1) 445 (92.3) 486 (93.6) 0.6171
Family history of kidney disease 301 (14.4) 81 (14.4) 72 (13.1) 70 (15.0) 78 (15.2) 0.7562
Urinary ACR≥30 mg/g 1093 (51) 234 (40.6) 235 (41.7) 236 (49.0) 388 (74.8) <.0001
  1. Note: Values are n (column percent) unless otherwise indicated.
  2. Abbreviations: HbA1c, Glycosylated Hemoglobin; KEEP, Kidney Early Evaluation Program; NHW, Non-Hispanic White; NHAA, Non-Hispanic African American; ACR, Albumin-creatinine ratio.
  3. † Median (IQR).
  4. § chi2 for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables.