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Table 1 The baseline clinical characteristics of the patients

From: Hypertension resistant to antihypertensive agents commonly occurs with the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective observational study

  %/Mean±SD Number estimated (%)
Age (years) 63 ± 12 2018 (100)
Men 62 2018 (100)
Duration of diabetes mellitus (years) 9.4 ± 9.8 1723 (85)
Current plus past smoking 59 1585 (79)
Drinkers # 42 1671 (83)
Treatment for diabetes mellitus   2018 (100)
Diet only/OHA/insulin/GLP-1 analogue 17/56/27/0  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.9 ± 4.3 1995 (99)
Obesity ## 44 1995 (99)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 139 ± 21 2018 (100)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 14 2018 (100)
Hypertension 70 2018 (100)
Number of antihypertensive agents 1.6 ± 1.2 1420 (70)
Control of blood pressure   2018 (100)
Category 1 31 629
Category 2 4 90
Category 3 20 407
Category 4 44 892
HbA1c (%) 8.5 ± 2.2 1887 (94)
Glycoalbumin (%) 24.7 ± 8.4 206 (10)
Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 55 ± 20 2018 (100)
  1. OHA: oral hypoglycemic agents, GFR: glomerular filtration rate.
  2. # Drinkers were defined as those who consumed more than 20 g/day of ethanol.
  3. ## Obesity was considered to be present in individuals with a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2.