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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the total study population and the four study groups

From: Total protein, albumin and low-molecular-weight protein excretion in HIV-positive patients

   All patients No cART cART/no TFV cART/TFV p-value TFV/NNRTI TFV/PI p-value
Number of patients N (% of total) 317 (100) 57 (18) 143 (45) 117 (37)   72 (23) 45 (14)  
Age (years) Mean (SD) (range) 41.0 (8.9) (24.4, 64.3) 38.0 (8.5) (21.2, 60.2) 40.9 (8.9) (25.8, 63.3) 42.3 (8.8) (25.7, 70.1) 0.83 42.3 (9.3) (21.7, 65.8) 42.6 (7.3) (27.5, 63.3) 0.30
Male gender N (%) 222 (70) 43 (75) 89 (62) 90 (77) 0.02 54 (75) 36 (80) 0.53
Black Ethnicity N (%) 189 (60) 31 (54) 95 (66) 63 (54) 0.08 35 (49) 28 (62) 0.15
Time since HIV diagnosis (years) Median (IQR) 4.9 (2.1, 8.7) 2.0 (0.5, 4.2) 5.1 (2.2, 8.2) 5.8 (3.1, 4.7) 0.0001 5.1 (2.5, 8.2) 7.8 (4.1, 11.4) 0.003
Time since start cART (years) Median (IQR) 4.6 (2.6, 7.6) 3.2 (2.6, 5.9) 4.3 (2.6, 6.8) 4.8 (2.6, 8.1) 0.51 4.5 (2.5, 7.3) 6.0 (3.1, 9.2) 0.009
AIDS (CDC status C) (N, %) 77 (17) 1 (2) 27 (19) 33 (28) <0.0001 17 (24) 16 (35) 0.16
Nadir CD4 count (cells/mm3) Median (IQR) 171 (71, 262) 290 (230, 416) 161 (69, 250) 146 (64, 210) 0.0001 158 (82, 224) 94 (25, 222) 0.07
Current CD4 count (cells/mm3) Median (IQR) 389 (270, 532) 437 (329, 560) 363 (269, 534) 385 (259, 517) 0.13 385 (245, 512) 376 (249, 566) 0.62
Current HIV RNA (log10) Mean (SD) 2.4 (1.3) 3.9 (1.1) 2.2 (1.1) 2.0 (1.0) 0.0001 2.1 (1.1) 2.1 (1.0) 0.04
HIV RNA <50 c/mL N (%) 204 (65) 4 (9) 110 (77) 90 (77) <0.0001 60 (83) 30 (67) <0.0001
Hepatitis B surface Ag (positive) N (%) 15 (5) 3 (5) 4 (3) 8 (7) 0.31 4 (6) 4 (9) 0.49
Hepatitis C Antibody (positive) N (%) 20 (6) 3 (5) 3 (2) 14 (12) 0.005 10 (14) 4 (9) 0.42
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) Median (IQR) 89 (78, 99) 91 (81, 99) 89 (80, 100) 85 (77, 97) 0.08 86 (76, 97) 82 (76, 96) 0.84
Diabetes N (%) 11 (4) 0 (0) 7 (6) 4 (4) 0.27 2 (3) 2 (5) 0.62
Hypertension N (%) 39 (15) 5 (12) 20 (16) 14 (13) 0.75 11 (17) 3 (8) 0.16
Weight (Kg) Median (IQR) 74.2 (66.0, 82.0) 76.0 (68.9, 85.0) 74.3 (65.6, 82.0) 73.5 (66.0, 82.9) 0.39 73.6 (66.4, 81.0) 71.1 (65.6, 84.9) 0.73
BMI Median (IQR) 24.6 (22.9, 28.1) 25.6 (22.5, 31.4) 25.5 (22.4, 29.6) 23.9 (21.9, 27.1) 0.06 24.1 (22.1, 26.8) 23.5 (21.4, 27.7) 0.73
  1. p value for comparison between study groups (significance relates to the group in bold).
  2. cART = combination antiretroviral therapy; TFV = tenofovir; NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI = protease inhibitor; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; BMI = body mass index.