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Table 2 Prevalence of CV-related comorbidities and CV Risk Factors by CKD Stage in US adults ≥20 years of age with CKD Stage 1–4* based on 2001–2010 NHANES participants

From: Evaluation of cardiovascular disease burden and therapeutic goal attainment in US adults with chronic kidney disease: an analysis of national health and nutritional examination survey data, 2001–2010

Variable No CKD All CKD CKD Stage: P
  (n=8,487) (n=1,428) 1 2 3a 3b 4  
    (n=285) (n=337) (n=545) (n=201) (n=60)  
Cardiovascular disease history (%)‡         
  Cardiovascular disease§ 6.0 (0.3) 28.4 (1.6) 9.0 (2.2) 31.2 (3.3) 30.2 (2.4) 49.4 (4.5) 51.0 (6.5) <0.001
  Coronary heart disease║ 4.3 (0.3) 19.6 (1.3) 6.0 (1.9) 22.0 (2.8) 21.0 (2.1) 32.8 (4.5) 36.5 (5.7) <0.001
  Stroke 1.9 (0.2) 10.3 (1.1) 2.5 (0.8) 8.8 (1.8) 10.2 (1.4) 22.5 (4.3) 30.3 (7.1) <0.001
  Congestive heart failure 1.2 (0.1) 9.7 (0.9) 3.2 (1.1) 7.8 (1.8) 7.2 (1.1) 27.7 (3.4) 27.8 (4.9) <0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors (%)‡         
  Diabetes 8.1 (0.4) 31.5 (1.5) 36.0 (3.6) 32.4 (3.2) 24.4 (2.5) 38.3 (4.2) 44.7 (6.8) 0.3
  Hyperlipidemia# 31.0 (0.6) 53.9 (1.5) 45.5 (3.3) 53.8 (3.1) 55.1 (2.6) 63.4 (4.5) 67.8 (5.5) <0.001
  Hypertension** 37.7 (0.8) 76.1 (1.5) 58.2 (3.9) 75.2 (3.6) 83.4 (2.3) 85.3 (2.4) 94.2 (2.7) <0.001
  1. Values are weighted estimates presented as percent (standard error). Estimates were standardized to the July 2008 US census population ≥20 years of age.
  2. *CKD Stage 1–4 was identified by the presence of kidney damage (based on albuminuria) and level of decline in kidney function (based on eGFR), and staged using modified National Kidney Foundation criteria (see Methods).
  3. P values are for Stage 1 versus Stage 4 CKD, obtained using the SAS procedure SURVEYLOGISTIC; P values for No CKD versus All CKD are all <0.001, obtained using the SAS procedure SURVEYFREQ (see Methods).
  4. ‡All disease history and drug utilization was self-reported.
  5. §Cardiovascular disease was a composite of self-reported CHD, stroke or CHF.
  6. ║Coronary heart disease was identified by self-report of CHD, angina or myocardial infarction.
  7. ¶Diabetes was identified by self-report, self-reported use of insulin or oral medications for diabetes, or fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL.
  8. #Hyperlipidemia was defined as LDL-C ≥160 mg/dL for individuals with ≤1 CHD risk factor, ≥130 mg/dL for individuals with ≥2 CHD risk factors, ≥100 mg/dL for individuals with CHD or CHD risk equivalents (eg, diabetes), or self-reported use of lipid-lowering agents.
  9. **Hypertension was defined as an average BP >130 mmHg systolic or >80 mmHg diastolic, or self-reported use of antihypertensive agents.