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Table 2 Effect of 0.9% isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl), 3% hypertonic saline (3% NaCl) and isotonic glucose (Glucose) on urinary output (OU), free water clearence (C H2O ), urine osmolarity (u-osm), urinary aquaporin2 excretion rate (u-AQP2) and urinary aquaporin2 corrected for creatinine (u-AQP2 CR ) in a randomized, crossover study of 23 healthy subjects

From: Effect of volume expansion with hypertonic- and isotonic saline and isotonic glucose on sodium and water transport in the principal cells in the kidney

Periods Baseline Infusion Post infusion p (GLM-within)
0-90 min 90-150 min 150-180 min 180-210 min 210-240 min
UO (ml/min)
0.9% NaCl 6.90(1.33) 8.75(1.76) 7.95(2.31) 7.39(2.36) 8.12(2.26) <0.0001
3% NaCl 7.12(1.35) 2.75(0.73) 1.81(0.64) 1.98(1.07) 2.05(1.09)**
Glucose 6.83(1.58) 11.84(2.28) 16.05(2.82) 15.28(2.47) 13.45(2.47)**
p (GLM between)   <0.0001     
p ANOVA 0.77 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001  
C H2O
0.9% NaCl 3.87(1.55) 5.29(1.44) 4.07(2.09) 3.01(2.04) 3.62(1.59) <0.0001
3% NaCl 3.97(1.21) -0.35(0.73) -1.87(0.83) -2.22(0.88) -2.26(0.96)
Glucose 3.84(1.32) 6.38(1.77) 11.60(0.52) 12.47(2.35) 11.17(2.12)
p (GLM between)   <0.0001     
p ANOVA 0.95 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001  
U- osm (mosmol/kg)
0.9% NaCl 140(62) 115(21) 149(58) 176(50) 161(33) <0.0001
3% NaCl 136(37) 342(96) 606(114) 637(105) 640(111)*
Glucose 136(41) 133(21) 79(21) 52(12) 48(7)*
p (GLM between)   p <0.0001     
p ANOVA 0.95 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001  
u-AQP2 (ng/min)
0.9% NaCl 1.03 (0.25) 1.02(0.22) 1.22(0.34) - 1.26(0.32)* <0.0001
3% NaCl 1.02(0.22) 0.99(0.31) 1.28(0.30) - 1.37(0.34)*
Glucose 1.01(0.22) 1.26(0.25) 1.19(0.29) - 0.78(0.18)*
p (GLM between)   0.274     
u-AQP2 CR (ng/mmol)
0.9% NaCl 102.5(19.9) 110.8(18.1) 119.8(25.4) - 125.0(21.0)** <0.0001
3% NaCl 105.9(15.7) 108.6(27.2) 125.1(31.4) - 132.7(26.5)*
Glucose 105.7(19.1) 137.1(22.3) 118.1(26.5) - 87.9(15.4)*
p (GLM between)   0.565     
  1. Values are mean with SD in brackets. General linear model (GLM) with repeated measures was performed for comparison within the group and intervention as between subjects factor. One way ANOVA was performed when differences were found between interventions. Paired t-test was used for comparison within treatment group at baseline and post infusion period 210 – 240 minutes. *p < 0.0001; **p < 0.001.