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Table 3 Effect of 0.9% isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl), 3% hypertonic saline (3% NaCl) and isotonic glucose (Glucose) on urinary sodium excretion (u-Na), fractional excretion of sodium (FE Na ), urinary potassium wxcretion (u-K), fractional excretion of potassium (FE K ), urinary gamma fraction of the epithelial sodium channels excretion rate (u-ENaCγ) and urinary gamma fraction of ENaC corrected for creatinine (u-ENaCγ CR )

From: Effect of volume expansion with hypertonic- and isotonic saline and isotonic glucose on sodium and water transport in the principal cells in the kidney

Periods Baseline Infusion Post infusion p (GLM within)
0-90 min 90-150 min 150-180 min 180-210 min 210-240 min
u-Na (mmol/min)
0.9% NaCl 1.24(0.55) 1.83(0.56) 2.51(1.05) 2.78(0.99) 3.07(0.98)* <0.0001
3% NaCl 1.38(0.58) 1.86(0.75) 2.65(1.06) 2.94(1.44) 3.17(1.38)*
Glucose 1.23(0.51) 1.38(7.3) 0.94(0.43) 0.83(0.35) 0.72(0.35)*
p (GLM between)   <0.0001     
p (ANOVA) 0.599 0.028 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.001  
FE Na
0.9% NaCl 1.26(0.53) 1.93(0.61) 2.35(0.72) 2.67(0.76) 2.80(0.75)* <0.0001
3% NaCl 1.44(0.61) 2.08(0.81) 2.66(1.07) 3.07(1.27) 3.01(1.26)*
Glucose 1.27(0.53) 1.36(0.64) 0.88(0.37) 0.81(0.37) 0.74(0.37)*
p (GLM between)   <0.0001     
p (ANOVA) 0.465 0.002 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001  
U-K (mmol/min)
0.9% NaCl 26.5(9.1) 22.5(7.6) 21.1(8.9) 22.7(12.2) 23.5(10.2)*** <0.0001
3% NaCl 25.4(9.2) 17.3(7.3) 16.9(8.1) 20.1(10.5) 21.1(9.9)***
Glucose 24.9(8.7) 17.2(5.8) 10.8(3.7) 9.6(3.2) 11.23(4.4)*
p (GLM between)   <0.0001     
p (ANOVA) 0.827 0.016 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001  
FE K
0.9% NaCl 28.2(9.9) 23.3(7.4) 20.4(7.8) 21.5(8.2) 21.5(7.9)*** <0.0001
3% NaCl 26.3(9.0) 18.5(6.8) 17.0(7.5) 20.9(9.3) 20.0(8.9)***
Glucose 25.7(8.8) 16.7(5.5) 9.8(3.1) 9.3(3.4) 11.5(4.4)*
p (GLM between)   < 0.0001     
p (ANOVA) 0.624 <0.01 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001  
u-ENaCγ (ng/min)
0.9% NaCl 351.2(155.0) 302.3(108.5) 341.2(123.0) - 327.2(111.3) <0.0001
3% NaCl 358.8(160.0) 375.9(173.7) 462.6(203.4) - 435.9(168.7)**
Glucose 338.3(150.0) 301.7(128.8) 335.2(185.1) - 283.7(164.4)***
p (GLM between)   0.076     
u-ENaCγ CR (ng/mmol)
0.9% NaCl 36.25(3.63) 32.98(3.50) 34.40(3.63) - 32.56(3.57) <0.001
3% NaCl 37.56(3.70) 43.29(3.58) 45.83(3.72) - 44.46(3.65)***
Glucose 35.33(3.62) 32.78(3.50) 31.68(3.63) - 31.71(3.57)
p (GLM between)   0.091     
  1. Values are means with SD in brackets. General linear model (GLM) with repeated measures was performed for comparison within the group and intervention as between subjects factor. One way ANOVA was used for comparison of means between subjects when differences were found. Paired t-test was used for comparison within treatment group at baseline and third post infusion period *p < 0.0001, **p <0.001, *** p < 0.01.