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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants by study cohort*

From: Ethnic differences in the association between blood pressure components and chronic kidney disease in middle aged and older Asian adults

  Chinese Malay Indian Pvalue†
  (n=3,167) (n=3,082) (n=3,228)  
Age, mean (SD), years 59.4 (9.8) 58.7 (11.0) 57.5 (10.0) <0.0001
Gender, female, % 50.1 52.0 49.2 0.07
Primary & below education, % 52.5 75.3 55.6 <0.0001
Income <SGD 1000, % 46.1 68.8 48.2 <0.0001
Current smoking, % 13.0 20.2 14.9 <0.0001
Alcohol consumption, % 11.1 1.5 12.9 <0.0001
Hypertension, % 57.9 68.6 56.0 <0.0001
Antihypertensive medication use among those with previously diagnosed hypertension, % 89.8 53.4 83.1 <0.0001
Overweight/obesity, % 32.1 57.8 56.6 <0.0001
Blood glucose, mmol/L 6.4 (2.8) 6.8 (3.7) 7.2 (3.6) <0.0001
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), % 6.1 (0.9) 6.5 (1.6) 6.4 (1.4) <0.0001
Systolic BP, mean (SD), mm Hg 136.2 (19.2) 147.2 (23.8) 135.2 (19.5) <0.0001
Diastolic BP, mean (SD), mm Hg 77.6 (9.8) 79.8 (11.2) 77.5 (10.1) <0.0001
Total cholesterol, mean (SD), mmol/L 5.5 (1.1) 5.6 (1.2) 5.2 (1.1) <0.0001
HDL-cholesterol, mean (SD), mmol/L 1.3 (0.4) 1.4 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) <0.0001
Triglycerides, mean (SD), mmol/L 1.8 (1.3) 1.6 (1.3) 2.0 (1.2) <0.0001
Body mass index, mean (SD), kg/m2 23.7 (3.6) 26.4 (5.1) 26.2 (4.8) <0.0001
Estimated GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 88.9 (18.5) 74.4 (20.4) 87.2 (18.1) <0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: HDL, high-density lipoprotein; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; SD, standard deviation.
  2. * Data presented are row percentages or mean values and corresponding standard error.
  3. P value represents difference in characteristics by study cohort based on analysis of variance or chi square test as appropriate.