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Table 2 The core phenotyping and primary aims of CKD observational cohort studies

From: The natural history of, and risk factors for, progressive Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): the Renal Impairment in Secondary care (RIISC) study; rationale and protocol

Cohort Primary aims Cardiovascular phenotyping Other bio-clinical phenotyping
CRIB [30, 38] To explore the relationship between CKD and CVD in individuals not receiving dialysis 12 lead ECG for assessment of LVH Medical history; height, weight and blood pressure; urine and non-fasted blood, creatinine and eGFR (MDRD)
MMKD [31] To explore the natural history of mild to moderate CKD and identify possible biomakers of progression   Medical history, clinical examination and blood and urine collection for biomarker analysis
LCKD [32] To describe the course of the disease and the determinants of patient outcomes In phase II patients from the initial phase invited to undergo echocardiography, flow mediated vasodilation, pulse wave velocity, 24 hr heart rate monitoring and spiral CT. All these investigations are done on two occasions one year apart Health related QoL (SF36); co-morbidites and medications; blood ans urine samples for biomarker analysis
CRISIS [33] To describe the risk factors associated with renal progression Augmentation index and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (SphygmoCor system); two blood pressure readings Medical History; medication history; Blood and urine for biomarker analysis
CRIC [35, 39, 40] To examine the risk factors for both the progression of CKD and the development of CVD 12 lead ECG and echocardiography at years 1 and 4 of follow up, sprial CT in a third of participants, pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured in 2564 participants eGFR (MDRD in all, iothalamate in a sub-group), annual blood and urine sampling for biomarker analysis
SEEK [36] To examine the prevalence of abnormalities in PTH, vitamin D, phosphate and calcium in patients with CKD None Medical history; medication history; blood and urine samples
R2ID [37] To assess the need for specialist referral in a primary care CKD population and measure rate of change of kidney function Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Vicorder system), advanced glycation end products (AGE reader system) Socio-economic measures (IMD score); medical and medication history; anthropomorphic measures; blood and urine sampling;
  1. ECG, Electrocardiogram, LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy, MDRD, modification of diet in renal disease formula, SF36, short form 36 for the assessment of quality of life, QoL, Quality of Life, PTH, parathyroid hormone, AGE, Advanced glycation end products.