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Table 1 General characteristics of studied population

From: Prevalence of microalbuminuria and diagnostic value of dipstick proteinuria in outpatients from HIV clinics in Bukavu, the Democratic Republic of Congo

Variables Whole group HAART subjects ART naive subjects p
  n = 235 n = 179 n = 56  
Female, % 172 (73,2) 127 (54) 45 (19,1) 0,0001
Age (years, median) 40,0 ± 10,7 42,3 ± 10,6 35 ± 9,7 < 0,0001
Family history of:     
- DM 48 (20,4) 41 (17,4) 7 (3) 0,06
- Hypertension 72 (30,6) 54 (23,0) 18 (7,7) 0,28
- Obesity 50 (21,3) 39 (16,6) 11 (4,7) 0,61
- CKD 22 (9,4) 15 (6,4) 7 (3,0) 0,49
Comorbidities     
- DM 4 (1,7) 4 (1,7) 0 (0) 0,597
- Hypertension 110(46,8) 87 (37,0) 23 (9,8) 0,02
Level of education < 6 years 113 (48,9) 79 (34,2) 34 (14,7) 0,05
Marital status:     
- Married 104 (55,7) 78 (43) 26 (12,8) 0,01
- widow 131 (55,7) 101 (43) 30 (12,8) 0,005
History of smoking 28 (11,9) 21 (8,9) 7 (3) 0,73
History of alcohol consumption 107 (45,5) 82 (34,9) 25 (10,6) 0,036
History of medicinal plants use 29 (12,3) 19 (8,1) 10 (4,3) 0,69
History of NSAIDS use 49 (20,9) 39 (16,6) 10 (4,3) 0,62
  1. Data are expressed as absolute or relative frequencies or mean plus the standard deviation (SD) as appropriate.