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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to blood cadmium level tertile in CPD patients ( n= 301)

From: Association between blood cadmium levels and malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis

Characteristics Low BCL group (<0.19 μg/L) Middle BCL group (0.19 - 0.39 μg/L) High BCL group (>0.39 μg/L) P
(n = 101) (n = 102) (n = 98)
Demographics     
Age (years) 45.3 ± 13.1 50.1 ± 13.1 53.2 ± 13.3 <0.001
Female sex 58 (57.4) 66 (64.7) 65 (66.3) 0.192
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.7 ± 3.6 22.7 ± 4.2 22.7 ± 3.6 0.799
Smoking (Yes) 23 (22.8) 26 (25.5) 19 (19.4) 0.567
Comorbidity     
Diabetes mellitus (Yes) 7 (6.9) 13 (12.7) 17 (16.7) 0.023
Hypertension (Yes) 90 (89.1) 88(86.3) 84 (85.7) 0.468
Previous cardiovascular diseases (Yes) 14 (13.9) 13 (12.7) 11 (11.2) 0.183
Dialysis-Related Data     
Peritoneal dialysis duration (years) 3.8 ± 2.9 3.4 ± 3.1 3.8 ± 2.9 0.609
High and high average Cr D/P, 4 h (Yes) 44 (43.6) 58(56.9) 49 (50.0) 0.658
Erythropoietin (U/kg/week) 45.9 ± 32.5 44.5 ± 31.5 45.6 ± 31.0 0.810
Total Kt/V 2.17 ± 0.33 2.18 ± 0.42 2.16 ± 0.37 0.478
Residual renal Ccr (L/week/1.73 m2)* 2.51 (0.0, 71.9) 2.84 (0.0, 68.1) 2.99 (0.0, 56.4) 0.452
Standard total Ccr (L/week/1.73 m2) 63.8 ± 14.5 61.9 ± 13.4 62.9 ± 14.1 0.365
nPNA (g/kg/day) 1.09 ± 0.28 1.07 ± 0.26 1.05 ± 0.26 0.303
Biochemical Data     
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 8.44 ± 1.56 8.53 ± 1.36 8.66 ± 1.32 0.250
Albumin (g/dL) 3.96 ± 0.46 3.85 ± 0.45 3.78 ± 0.50 0.006
ALT (IU/L) 16.5 ± 16.2 19.0 ± 12.2 19.7 ± 16.0 0.131
Creatinine (mg/dL) 12.8 ± 3.0 12.2 ± 2.9 11.6 ± 3.1 0.005
Transferrin saturation (%) 27.8 ± 13.6 27.0 ± 14.2 28.2 ± 12.3 0.835
Ferritin (μg/L)* 207.0 (6.9, 1930.0) 170.0 (5.9, 1497.0) 196.0 (7.0, 1909.0) 0.950
Corrected calcium (mg/dL) 10.0 ± 0.9 10.1 ± 0.8 10.2 ± 1.0 0.081
Phosphate (mg/dL) 5.5 ± 1.5 5.1 ± 1.3 5.0 ± 1.3 0.010
Intact parathyroid hormone (pg/mL)* 107.0 (5.0,998.0) 83.2 (5.0, 647.0) 81.0 (5.0, 1187.0) 0.165
Hs-CRP (mg/L)* 7.09 (0.20,124.45) 3.89 (0.26, 127.61) 3.52 (0.20, 59.8) 0.863
Cardiovascular Risks     
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 200.4 ± 44.5 209.6 ± 51.1 208.3 ± 41.9 0.223
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 214.1 ± 158.3 200.3 ± 131.7 190.2 ± 130.5 0.233
  1. Note: P < 0.05 represents significant trends between the groups. *Non-normally distributed data are presented as median (minimum, maximum). Patients with hypertension were either taking antihypertensive drugs regularly or their blood pressure was >140/90 mmHg at least twice. Cardiovascular diseases included cerebral vascular disease, coronary arterial disease, congestive heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease. ALT, alanine aminotransferase; BCL, blood cadmium level; CPD, chronic peritoneal dialysis; Ccr, clearance of creatinine; Cr, creatinine; Cr D/P, dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine; Hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; nPNA, normalized protein nitrogen appearance.