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Table 4 Factors associated with death during hospitalization: univariate and multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model (n = 78)

From: Undercorrection of hypernatremia is frequent and associated with mortality

  Monovariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  p HR CI 95% p Adjusted HR CI 95%
Age 0.04 1.05 1.00-1.10    
Male gender 0.06 2.47 0.97-6.28 0.007 5.65 1.60-19.90
Place of origin and personal environment:       
Home Ref. Ref. Ref.    
Institution or home medical care 0.65 1.24 0.50-3.08    
Season of occurrence:       
Winter Ref. Ref. Ref.    
Spring 0.36 0.54 0.15-2.00    
Summer 0.79 0.86 0.29-2.59    
Autumn 0.21 0.38 0.08-1.75    
Dementia 0.54 1.40 0.48-4.04    
Treatment modifying renal water excretion 0.95 1.04 0.32-3.33    
Characteristics at admission:       
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) † <0.001 0.97 0.95-0.98    
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) † 0.001 0.95 0.92-0.98    
Mean blood pressure <0.001 0.95 0.92-0.97 <0.001 0.92 0.91-1.06
Neurologic symptoms 0.03 5.22 1.20-22.78    
Extracellular dehydration 0.07 4.02 0.92-17.63    
Natremia (mmol/L) 0.88 1.01 0.94-1.07 0.64 0.98 0.88-0.95
Calculated plasmatic tonicity (mOsm/L) † 0.06 1.02 1.00-1.04    
Calculated plasmatic osmolarity (mOsm/L) 0.09 1.02 1.00-1.03    
Creatinine (μmol/L) 0.004 1.01 1.00-1.01    
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) † 0.03 0.98 0.95-1.00    
Main diagnosis in emergency department:     
Extracellular dehydration Ref. Ref. Ref.  
Infection 0.04 4.21 1.09-16.29  
Other     
Perfused solute: 0.18 2.46 0.67-9.10  
Hypotonic solute Ref. Ref. Ref.  
Isotonic solute, no perfusion or unknown 0.44 1.43 0.58-3.52  
Natremia correction speed:     
Mean speed between entry and last known natremia (mmol/L/h) † 0.10 18.79 0.59-597.13    
No natremia improvement 0.02 3.12 1.22-7.96 <0.001 10.29 3.12-33.96
  1. Factors indicated by † were not included in the multivariate analysis because a linked factor was already included in the analysis.