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Table 1 Baseline characteristics classified according to the presence of chronic musculoskeletal (MS) pain

From: Factors associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease

  All patients n = 456 No chronic MS pain n = 213 Chronic MS pain n = 243 p
Age (y) 63.3 ± 14.1 62.4 ± 14.5 64.6 ± 13.5 0.09
Male (n, %) 194 (42.5%) 64 (30.0%) 130 (53.5%) <0.001*
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 25.5 ± 3.9 25.0 ± 3.4 26.3 ± 4.3 0.001*
Waist (cm) 89.9 ± 10.9 87.8 ± 10.2 93.2 ± 11.2 0.003*
Smoking (n, %) 181 (39.7%) 89 (41.8%) 92 (37.8%) 0.754
Alcohol use (n, %) 131 (28.7%) 65 (30.5%) 66 (27.2%) 0.990
Betel nut use (n, %) 26 (5.7%) 8 (3.8%) 18 (7.4%) 0.078
NSAID use (n, %) 40 (7.8%) 16 (7.5%) 20 (8.2%) 0.854
Chinese herb use (n, %) 44 (9.6%) 22 (10.3%) 22 (9.1%) 0.822
Co-morbidity     
  DM (n, %) 140 (30.7%) 75 (35.2%) 65 (26.7%) 0.034*
  Hypertension (n, %) 286 (62.7%) 124 (58.2%) 162 (66.7%) 0.059
  CAD (n, %) 35 (7.6%) 19 (8.9%) 16 (6.5%) 0.312
  PAD (n, %) 2 (0.4%) 1 (0.5%) 1 (0.4%) 0.935
  CHF (n, %) 13 (2.9%) 7 (3.2%) 6 (2.4%) 0.465
  Stroke (n, %) 19 (4.2%) 7 (3.2%) 12 (4.9%) 0.429
  Hyperuricemia (n, %) 226 (49.6%) 54 (25.5%) 172 (71.0%) <0.001*
  SLE (n, %) 2 (0.4%) 1 (0.5%) 1 (0.4%) 0.935
  Urolithiasis (n, %) 15 (3.3%) 8 (3.8%) 7 (2.9%) 0.502
  PKD (n, %) 1 (0.2%) 1 (0.5%) 0 (0%) 0.372
  RA (n, %) 3 (0.7%) 2 (0.9%) 1 (0.4%) 0.723
  Spondylarthropathies (n,%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1.000
  Spine OA (n, %) 3 (0.7%) 0 (0%) 3 (1.2%) 0.372
  Back pain (n, %) 48 (10.5%) 1 (0.5%) 48 (19.8%) <0.001*
Diuretics use (n, %) 63 (13.8%) 27 (12.7%) 36 (14.8%) 0.454
Allopurinol use (n, %) 213 (46.7%) 50 (23.5%) 163 (67.1%) <0.001*
Blood pressure     
  Systolic pressure (mm Hg) 133 ± 19 130 ± 18 135 ± 19 0.006*
  Diastolic pressure (mm Hg) 73 ± 10 73 ± 10 74 ± 11 0.631
  1. Notes: Values expressed as mean ± SD or percent.
  2. Abbreviations: MS: musculoskeletal, NSAID: non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, CKD: chronic kidney disease, DM: diabetes mellitus, CAD: coronary artery disease, PAD: peripheral arterial disease, CHF: congestive heart failure, SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus, PKD: polycystic kidney disease, RA: rheumatoid arthritis, OA: osteoarthritis.
  3. *Statistical significance based on the chi-square test for categorical variables, and t test for continuous variables.
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