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Table 3 Factors associated with chronic MS pain: univariate and multivariate analyses

From: Factors associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain in patients with chronic kidney disease

  Univariate 95% confidence interval p Multivariate 95% confidence interval p
Odds ratio Odds ratio
All patients       
Age (y) 1.002 0.985–1.018 0.913    
Male gender 2.295 1.562–3.374 <0.001    
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 1.092 1.037–1.151 0.001    
Co-morbidity of DM 0.908 0.603–1.368 0.644    
Co-morbidity of hyperuricemia 7.167 4.655–11.034 <0.001 8.235 2.129–31.852 0.002*
Co-morbidity of back pain 85.808 11.722–628.114 <0.001    
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 1.015 1.004–1.026 0.007    
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 1.256 1.050–1.503 0.013    
Ca × P (mg2/mL2) 1.226 1.044-1.520 0.010 1.028 1.008–1.131 0.022*
Patients with co-morbidity of hyperuricemia
Age (y) 0.985 0.961–1.011 0.258    
Male gender 2.080 0.964–4.486 0.062    
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 1.093 0.981–1.194 0.057    
Co-morbidity of DM 0.481 0.235–0.981 0.044 0.413 0.196–0.815 0.020#
Co-morbidity of back pain 8.995 0.651–18.143 0.998    
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 1.011 0.992–1.031 0.248    
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 1.415 1.016–1.971 0.040    
Ca × P (mg2/mL2) 0.994 0.937–1.054 0.835    
Patients without co-morbidity of hyperuricemia
Age (y) 1.020 0.983–1.042 0.076    
Male gender 0.958 0.548–1.676 0.881    
Body mass index (Kg/m2) 1.027 0.948–1.113 0.515    
Co-morbidity of DM 1.505 0.845–2.679 0.165    
Co-morbidity of back pain 6.182 0.353–17.313 0.998    
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 1.013 0.997–1.029 0.107    
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 1.085 0.842–1.398 0.528    
Ca × P (mg2/mL2) 1.083 1.012–1.159 0.021 1.093 1.010–1.179 0.027#
  1. *p from logistic regression adjusted for age, male gender, body mass index, co-morbidity of diabetes, hyperuricemia, and back pain, systolic blood pressure, serum haemoglobin, and product of calcium and phosphate levels.
  2. #p from logistic regression adjusted for age, male gender, body mass index, co-morbidity of diabetes, and back pain, systolic blood pressure, serum haemoglobin, and product of calcium and phosphate levels.
  3. Abbreviations: MS, musculoskeletal; DM, diabetes mellitus, CA × P, product of calcium and phosphate.
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