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Table 2 Demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics of subjects by tertiles of irisin

From: Association of serum irisin and body composition with chronic kidney disease in obese Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study

Variables Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4 Total P value
Irisin (ng/mL) 0.13 (0.02, 1.56) 4.73 (3.83, 5.97) 10.38 (8.67, 12.17) 23.05 (17.73, 31.28) 7.26 (2.75, 14.72) <0.001‡
Demographics       
N (%) 279 (25.0%) 279 (25.0%) 279 (25.0%) 278 (25.0%) 1115 (100.0%)  
Sex       
Male (n, %) 94 (33.7%) 100 (35.8%) 85 (30.5%) 70 (25.2%) 349 (31.3%) 0.039*
Female (n, %) 185 (66.3%) 179 (64.2%) 194 (69.5%) 208 (74.8%) 766 (68.7%)  
Age (years) 53.2 ± 7.4 52.6 ± 7.4 53.4 ± 7.1 53.5 ± 7.0 53.2 ± 7.2 0.7
Education categories, (n, %)       0.4
Illiteracy 66 (23.7%) 70 (25.1%) 91 (32.6%) 75 (27.0%) 302 (27.1%)  
Elementary school 87 (31.2%) 77 (27.6%) 77 (27.6%) 89 (32.0%) 330 (29.6%)  
Middle school 67 (24.0%) 77 (27.6%) 52 (18.6%) 60 (21.6%) 256 (23.0%)  
High school 35 (12.5%) 33 (11.8%) 38 (13.6%) 36 (13.0%) 142 (12.7%)  
College or above 24 (8.6%) 22 (7.9%) 21 (7.5%) 18 (6.4%) 85 (7.6%)  
Life style       
Ever smoking (n, %) 82 (29.4%) 81 (29.0%) 73 (26.2%) 59 (21.2%) 295 (26.5%) 0.1
Ever drinking (n, %) 37 (13.3%) 27 (9.7%) 36 (12.9%) 30 (10.8%) 130 (11.7%) 0.4
Physical activity (MET-h/week) 84.0 (46.2, 158.2) 84.0 (46.2, 140.0) 87.3 (46.2, 152.4) 100.3 (56.0, 154.0) 84.0 (51.6, 148.4) 0.4
Body composition indices       
BMI (kg/m2) 27.5 ± 3.1 27.3 ± 3.1 27.7 ± 3.3 27.2 ± 2.8 27.5 ± 3.1 0.2
Waist circumference (cm) 94.1 ± 7.3 93.8 ± 7.2 93.4 ± 7.1 93.1 ± 6.6 93.6 ± 7.1 0.4
Waist hip ratio 0.940 ± 0.049 0.943 ± 0.050 0.933 ± 0.050 0.930 ± 0.049 0.937 ± 0.049 0.006†
Body fat mass (kg) 24.0 ± 5.4 23.3 ± 5.3 24.1 ± 5.6 24.0 ± 5.1 23.9 ± 5.3 0.2
Body fat rate (%) 34.6 ± 6.6 34.0 ± 6.9 35.1 ± 7.0 35.3 ± 6.3 34.7 ± 6.7 0.1
Body fat free weight (kg) 46.7 ± 9.2 46.2 ± 8.4 45.8 ± 8.5 44.8 ± 7.5 45.9 ± 8.4 0.1
Muscle mass (kg) 44.1 ± 8.8 43.7 ± 8.1 43.2 ± 8.1 42.2 ± 7.2 43.3 ± 8.1 0.048*
Clinical characteristics       
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.9 ± 17.5 133.1 ± 17.6 135.7 ± 20.1 133.1 ± 16.0 134.0 ± 17.9 0.3
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80.1 ± 10.7 80.0 ± 10.8 80.4 ± 12.1 79.0 ± 9.6 79.9 ± 10.8 0.4
Serum albumin (g/L) 49.1 ± 2.4 48.9 ± 2.4 49.0 ± 2.3 49.2 ± 2.5 49.0 ± 2.5 0.8
Serum glubulin (g/L) 25.0 ± 3.2 25.7 ± 3.4 26.5 ± 3.7 26.8 ± 3.4 26.0 ± 3.4 <0.001‡
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.94 ± 1.44 1.98 ± 1.34 1.81 ± 1.16 1.77 ± 1.15 1.87 ± 1.28 0.2
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.83 ± 1.10 5.77 ± 1.00 5.91 ± 1.11 5.95 ± 1.13 5.87 ± 1.09 0.2
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.36 ± 0.30 1.35 ± 0.31 1.36 ± 0.28 1.39 ± 0.30 1.37 ± 0.30 0.6
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.59 ± 1.02 3.54 ± 0.96 3.73 ± 1.03 3.76 ± 1.03 3.65 ± 1.01 0.022*
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 6.22 ± 1.95 6.09 ± 1.69 6.23 ± 1.95 6.09 ± 1.35 6.16 ± 1.75 0.6
Glucose 120 min OGTT (mmol/L) 9.11 ± 4.17 8.93 ± 4.09 9.16 ± 4.24 9.01 ± 3.90 9.05 ± 4.10 0.9
Fasting insulin (mIU/L) 13.2 ± 7.2 12.6 ± 6.8 12.5 ± 6.4 12.7 ± 6.6 12.7 ± 6.8 0.6
HOMA-IR (*10-6 mol*IU*L-2) 3.68 ± 2.37 3.49 ± 2.59 3.51 ± 2.22 3.50 ± 2.21 3.54 ± 2.35 0.7
HbA1c 6.27 ± 1.25 6.17 ± 0.97 6.23 ± 1.06 6.16 ± 0.85 6.21 ± 1.04 0.6
Hyperuricemia, (n (%)) 120 (43.0%) 103 (36.9%) 104 (37.3%) 103 (37.1%) 430 (38.6%) 0.4
eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, (n (%)) 9 (3.2%) 13 (4.7%) 11 (3.9%) 7 (2.5%) 40 (3.6%) 0.6
Albumin creatinine ratio > =30 mg/g, (n (%)) 57 (20.4%) 52 (18.6%) 70 (25.1%) 47 (16.9%) 226 (20.3%) 0.1
CKD, (n (%)) 64 (22.9%) 62 (22.2%) 80 (28.7%) 52 (18.7%) 258 (23.1%) 0.046*
  1. *p < 0.05, †p < 0.01, ‡p < 0.001.
  2. All percentages are column percentage; except for percentages, all values are mean ± s.d. or median(25th, 75th) for non-normal distribution data.
  3. Abbreviations: ACR albumin creatinine ratio, BMI body mass index, CKD chornic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MET-h/week metabolic equivalent hours per week.