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Table 3 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for chronic kidney disease (CKD), with adjustment for competing morality

From: 13-year nationwide cohort study of chronic kidney disease risk among treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B in Taiwan

Variable Crude Adjusted*
HR (95 % CI) P HR (95 % CI) P
HBV (Yes/No) 2.08 1.85–2.34 <0.001 2.58 1.95–3.42 <0.001
Sex (Men/Women) 1.32 1.18–1.49 <0.001 1.38 1.11–1.73 0.004
Age (per year) 1.07 1.06–1.07 <0.001 1.06 1.05–1.07 <0.001
Major comorbidities (Yes/No)       
  Diabetes 5.30 4.69–5.98 <0.001 2.41 1.94–2.99 <0.001
 Hypertension 5.00 4.47–5.60 <0.001 1.92 1.64–2.24 <0.001
 Coronary heart disease 2.88 2.47–3.37 <0.001 0.90 0.66–1.23 0.51
 Hyperlipidemia 2.77 2.41–3.18 <0.001 1.19 0.95–1.49 0.13
 Cirrhosis 2.29 1.67–3.15 <0.001 1.00 0.33–3.02 0.10
Use of herbs containing aristolochic acid (Yes/No) 1.13 0.75–1.70 0.57 0.88 0.59–1.33 0.55
Geographic region       
  Northern 1.00 Reference   1.00 Reference  
  Central 1.22 1.08–1.39 0.002 1.31 1.12–1.53 <0.001
  Eastern 1.40 1.03–1.92 0.034 1.49 1.06–2.09 0.023
  Southern 1.19 1.05–1.34 0.006 1.21 1.04–1.42 0.016
Urbanization level       
  Urban 1.00 Reference   1.00 Reference  
  Suburban 0.94 0.84–1.05 0.27 0.98 0.85–1.14 0.82
  Rural 1.39 1.23–1.58 <0.001 0.92 0.77–1.11 0.38
Enrollee category       
  1 1.00 Reference   1.00 Reference  
  2 0.55 0.34–0.87 0.011 0.86 0.53–1.38 0.53
  3 1.52 1.36–1.70 <0.001 1.14 0.97–1.35 0.11
  4 1.45 1.27–1.66 <0.001 1.12 0.91–1.38 0.28
No. of medical visits 1.02 1.01–1.02 <0.001 1.01 1.009–1.014 <0.001
Charlson Comorbidity Index score 1.31 1.29–1.34 <0.001 0.97 0.81–1.14 0.68
Propensity score 1.42 1.36–1.47 <0.001 1.10 0.77–1.57 0.60
  1. Abbreviations: HBV hepatitis B virus, CI confidence interval
  2. *Adjusted for all covariates (age per year, sex, major comorbidities, use of herbs containing aristolochic acid, geographic region, urbanization level, enrollee category, number of medical visits, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and propensity score), and interaction terms (HBV/age, HBV/sex, and HBV/age/sex)