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Table 4 Changes of FMD, NO, ET-1, ACR, eGFR-Cr, and eGFR-Cys C throughout follow-up period

From: Excessive visit-to-visit glycemic variability independently deteriorates the progression of endothelial and renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Total (n = 239) Classified by tertile of SD of HbA1c Classified by tertile of SD of FPG
First tertile group (n = 79) Second tertile group (n = 80) Third tertile group (n = 80) P value First tertile group (n = 79) Second tertile group (n = 80) Third tertile group (n = 80) P value
Change percentage of FMD (%)a 0.93 (−3.10, 4.92) 4.18 (1.62, 6.14) −0.20 (−2.94, 4.18)* −2.34 (−4.96, 1.58)*,** <0.001 2.37 (−1.46, 5.69) 0.69 (−3.05, 5.50) −1.43 (−4.26, 3.27)*,** 0.001
Change percentage of NO (%)a 1.20 (−6.40, 8.80) 7.61 (2.60, 12.18) −0.94 (−6.10, 6.08)* −5.45 (−10.00, 2.93)*,** <0.001 4.29 (−5.05, 11.58) 3.00 (−6.85, 8.80)* −2.01 (−7.45, 5.28)* 0.002
Change percentage of ET-1 (%)b −0.85 ± 5.16 −3.03 ± 4.61 −0.75 ± 5.17* 1.23 ± 4.82*,** <0.001 −2.06 ± 4.65 −0.97 ± 5.41 0.49 ± 5.16* 0.006
Change percentage of ACR (%)a −2.09 (−6.11,2.55) −6.43 (−8.91, −2.53) −2.09 (−4.78, 0.24)* 3.10 (−1.36, 6.28)*,** <0.001 −3.48 (−7.52, −0.50) −2.09 (−6.06, 2.35)* −0.02 (−3.83, 5.83)*,** <0.001
Change percentage of eGFR-Cr (%)b 2.73 ± 6.43 7.49 ± 5.94 1.94 ± 5.35* −1.24 ± 4.65*,** <0.001 3.74 ± 5.90 2.83 ± 6.24 1.61 ± 7.00 0.101
Change percentage of eGFR-Cys C (%)b 2.35 ± 5.84 6.64 ± 5.37 1.66 ± 4.89* −1.25 ± 4.24*,** <0.001 3.26 ± 5.34 2.47 ± 5.66 1.32 ± 6.36 0.097
  1. Results are means ± SDs or medians (25th, 75th percentiles)
  2. acompared using ANOVA with Bonferroni procedure
  3. bcompared using Kruskal-Wallis test
  4. *P < 0.05, vs. first tertile group
  5. **P < 0.05, vs. second tertile group