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Table 5 Summary of the studies in urine and plasma biomarkers for sepsis-related acute kidney injury

From: Urinary exosomal activating transcriptional factor 3 as the early diagnostic biomarker for sepsis-induced acute kidney injury

Authors (year) Biomarkers AUROC 95% CI Timing of measurement Threshold values Sensitivity Specificity
Urine
Martensson et al. (2010) [12] NGALa (ng/mg creatinine) 0.86 0.68-1.0 12 h following septic shock >68 0.71 1.0
Su et al. (2011) [40] sTREM-1a (pg/mL) 0.92 0.85-0.99 48 h before AKI diagnosisc 69.04 0.94 0.76
Aydogdu et al. (2013) [41] Cys-Ca (mg/L) 0.86 - Within 8 days after
admission
0.106 0.85 0.80
  NGALa (ng/mL) 0.80 -   29.5 0.88 0.73
Fan et al. (2014) [30] NGALa (ng/mL) 0.86 0.81-0.93 7 days after onset of sepsis 402 0.89 0.74
Matsa et al. (2014) [42] NGALa (ng/mL) 0.78 - 24 h after admission 350 0.75 0.82
Terzi et al. (2014) [43] α1ma (mg/L) 0.74 - 24 h before AKI onset 47.9 0.88 0.62
Dai et al. (2015) [44] Cys-Ca (mg/L) 0.74 0.64-0.84 24 h before AKI onset N/A N/A N/A
  NGALa (ng/mL) 0.88 0.79-0.95   N/A N/A N/A
  sTREM-1a (pg/mL) 0.78 0.69-0.87   N/A N/A N/A
The present study ATF3b (ng/mL) 0.84 0.77-0.91 24 h before AKI onset 12 0.93 0.85
  NGALb (ng/mL) 0.64 0.54-0.74   150 0.98 0.44
Plasma
Martensson et al. (2010) [12] NGAL (ng/mL) 0.67 0.39-0.94 12 h following septic shock >120 0.83 0.50
Aydogdu et al. (2013) [41] Cys-C (mg/L) 0.82 - Within 8 days of admission 1.5 0.73 0.68
  NGAL (ng/mL) 0.44 -   N/A N/A N/A
Matsa et al. (2014) [42] NGAL (ng/mL) 0.88 - 24 h after admission 400 0.79 0.75
Nakamura et al. (2014) [45] Presepsin (pg/mL) 0.70 - Within 24 h of admission 670 0.70 0.81
Nakamura et al. (2015) [46] Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 0.88 - Within 24 h of admission 0.42 0.95 0.65
Dai et al. (2015) [44] Cys-C (mg/L) 0.74 0.63-0.84 24 h before AKI onset N/A N/A N/A
  NGAL (ng/mL) 0.83 0.74-0.92   N/A N/A N/A
sTREM-1 (pg/mL) 0.75 0.65-0.85 N/A N/A N/A
  1. α1m, alpha-1-microglobulin; AKI, acute kidney injury; ATF3, activating transcriptional factor 3; AUROC, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; Cys-C, cystatin-C; N/A, data not available; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; sTREM-1, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1
  2. adetection from urinary soluble fraction part
  3. bdetection from urinary exosomal part
  4. cno data were available 24 h before AKI onset