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Table 4 Determinants of costs and intensive service use among randomly sampled Taiwanese CKD Decedents dying in hospitals, 2005–2012 (N = 2072)a

From: Costs of care at the end of life among elderly patients with chronic kidney disease: patterns and predictors in a nationwide cohort study

Characteristics End-of-life Inpatient Costs Surgical Interventions ICU Mechanical Ventilation Resuscitation Dialysis
Exponentiated Coefficients 95% Confidence Interval Odds Ratios 95% Confidence Interval Odds Ratios 95% Confidence Interval Odds Ratios 95% Confidence Interval Odds Ratios 95% Confidence Interval Odds Ratios 95% Confidence Interval
Patient Age at death (in tens, '0) 0.97 (0.91–1.03) 0.91 (0.81–1.02) 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 0.97 (0.87–1.09) 0.78** (0.66–0.91) 0.97 (0.85–1.10)
Sex (=female) 1.00 (0.91–1.11) 1.05 (0.87–1.28) 1.02 (0.83–1.24) 1.03 (0.85–1.25) 0.89 (0.70–1.13) 1.07 (0.86–1.32)
ESRD 1.25*** (1.12–1.40) 1.23 (1.00–1.53) 1.74*** (1.38–2.21) 1.54*** (1.24–1.90) 1.97*** (1.52–2.55) 6.52*** (5.22–8.15)
Insurable monthly earnings (=average and above) 0.88 (0.78–1.00) 0.82 (0.67–1.00) 1.06 (0.86–1.31) 0.80* (0.66–0.96) 0.84 (0.64–1.10) 0.88 (0.69–1.11)
Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) 0.97 (0.95–1.00) 0.92*** (0.87–0.96) 0.84*** (0.79–0.90) 0.86*** (0.81–0.91) 0.86*** (0.79–0.93) 0.99 (0.94–1.05)
Physician Physician age (in tens, '0) 0.90** (0.83–0.97) 0.81** (0.71–0.92) 0.85* (0.73–0.99) 0.96 (0.82–1.11) 0.98 (0.83–1.16) 0.89 (0.77–1.02)
Physician sex (=female) 1.01 (0.85–1.20) 0.85 (0.60–1.20) 0.90 (0.59–1.37) 0.89 (0.60–1.32) 0.73 (0.42–1.26) 1.48 (0.98–2.25)
Specialty of primary attending physician
 Nephrologist 0.82** (0.71–0.95) 1.54*** (1.23–1.93) 0.87 (0.66–1.14) 0.84 (0.65–1.09) 1.03 (0.75–1.43) 1.73*** (1.30–2.30)
 Family medicine 0.39*** (0.27–0.57) 0.74 (0.38–1.44) 0.58 (0.32–1.04) 0.35*** (0.19–0.62) 0.77 (0.37–1.59) 0.56 (0.31–1.02)
 Surgeon 1.22* (1.02–1.46) 4.31*** (3.20–5.83) 1.30 (0.94–1.78) 1.01 (0.77–1.31) 1.20 (0.76–1.90) 1.19 (0.89–1.58)
Facility Primary hospital- accreditation level
 Medical Centers 1.68*** (1.30–2.15) 2.01** (1.27–3.19) 0.93 (0.65–1.33) 0.93 (0.63–1.36) 0.65 (0.40–1.08) 1.51 (0.95–2.40)
 Regional Hospitals 1.23 (0.96–1.56) 1.83** (1.17–2.87) 1.18 (0.85–1.62) 0.99 (0.71–1.38) 0.88 (0.54–1.41) 1.18 (0.76–1.84)
 Local Hospitals (Ref.) - - - - - - - - - - - -
Primary hospital- ownership (=private) 1.11 (0.99–1.26) 1.03 (0.83–1.28) 1.10 (0.89–1.35) 1.12 (0.90–1.40) 0.79 (0.61–1.04) 1.05 (0.83–1.32)
Teaching hospital 0.80 (0.61–1.06) 1.24 (0.74–2.08) 0.93 (0.63–1.38) 0.71 (0.48–1.05) 0.74 (0.43–1.26) 0.62 (0.38–1.03)
Region Number of hospital in the region (in tens, '0) 1.11 (0.93–1.33) 0.98 (0.74–1.29) 1.03 (0.74–1.43) 1.10 (0.84–1.44) 1.16 (0.77–1.75) 1.05 (0.75–1.45)
Number of beds in the region (in hundreds, '00) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
Time Trend Overall time trend (Year) 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 1.12 (0.98–1.28) 0.92 (0.80–1.06) 0.97 (0.86–1.10) 1.06 (0.88–1.26) 1.00 (0.85–1.16)
Difference in trend post 2009 (=Year-2009, for year ≥ 2009) 0.87* (0.78–0.97) 0.75** (0.61–0.91) 1.05 (0.87–1.27) 0.97 (0.83–1.15) 0.76* (0.59–0.99) 0.97 (0.78–1.21)
  1. Standard errors are clustered at the hospital level
  2. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05
  3. a. Estimates are adjusted for regional fixed effects by including regional dummies