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Table 1 Cohort characteristics

From: Latent variable modeling improves AKI risk factor identification and AKI prediction compared to traditional methods

Characteristic All subjects (n = 615)
Age, years 67 (50, 81)
Female 188 (30.6%)
African American 26 (4.2%)
Body mass index, kg/m2 27.7 (22.5, 36.9)
Medical history
 Hypertension 544 (88.5%)
 Congestive heart failure 243 (39.5%)
 Left ventricular ejection fraction, % 60 (35, 60)
 Myocardial infarction 110 (17.9%)
 Prior cardiac surgery 110 (17.9%)
 Diabetes 202 (32.8%)
 Current smoking 88 (14.3%)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 64 (10.4%)
 Peripheral vascular disease 170 (27.6%)
Preoperative medication use
 Statin 416 (67.6%)
 ACE inhibitor 192 (31.2%)
Baseline laboratory data
 Creatinine, mg/dl 1.01 (0.74, 1.60)
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 72.8 (38.5 96.7)
 Hematocrit, % 34 (25, 43)
Perioperative atorvastatin treatment assignment 308 (50%)
Procedure characteristics
 CABG surgery 301 (48.9%)
 Valve surgery 397 (64.6%)
 Cardiopulmonary bypass use 435 (70.7%)
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time, min 110.0 (0, 211.6)
 Aortic cross clamp use 291 (47.3%)
 Aortic cross clamp time, min 0 (0, 139.6)
Intraoperative fluids
 Intravenous crystalloid, mL 1600 (1000, 3000)
 Intravenous hydroxyethyl starch, mL 0 (0, 0)a
 Urine output, mL 430 (175, 946)
Arterial lactate, maximum intraoperative, mmol/L 1.7 (0.9, 3.8)
Length of surgery, hours 5.1 (3.6, 7.8)
  1. aOnly 59 of 615 patients received intravenous hydroxyethyl starch during surgery accounting for the low 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile values. BP blood pressure, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate using CKD-Epi formula, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting
  2. Binary characteristics are reported as n (%) and continuous characteristics as median (10th percentile, 90th percentile)