Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariate analysis of perioperative factors and end-stage renal disease for the whole cohort

From: Acute kidney injury increases the risk of end-stage renal disease after cardiac surgery in an Asian population: a prospective cohort study

Variables ESRD (n = 24) No ESRD (n = 2642) p-value
Pre-operative
 Age (years) 57.3 ± 9.4 59.3 ± 10.5 0.604
 Gender: male 21 (87.5) 2122 (80.3) 0.345
 Ethnicity Chinese 14 (58.3) 1898 (71.8) 0.304
Malay 5 (20.8) 420 (15.9)
Indian 5 (20.8) 324 (12.3)
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.2 ± 5.1 25.0 ± 4.1 0.839
 Diabetes mellitus 23 (95.8) 1182 (44.7) <0.001
 Hypertension 22 (91.7) 1976 (74.8) 0.058
 Myocardial infarction 18 (75.0) 1541 (58.3) 0.099
 Congestive cardiac failure 8 (33.3) 427 (16.2) 0.045
 Renal impairment 15 (62.5) 210 (7.9) <0.001
 Beta-blocker 21 (87.5) 1977 (75.0) 0.158
 ACE-inhibitor 12 (50) 1288 (48.8) 0.910
 Calcium channel blocker 10 (41.7) 511 (19.4) 0.016
 Statin 24 (100.0) 2135 (81.1) 0.014
 Diuretic 8 (33.3) 472 (17.9) 0.061
 Ejection fraction (<30%) 22 (91.7) 2440 (93.0) 0.683
 Pre-operative creatinine (μmol/L) 235 ± 127 89 ± 36 <0.001
 Pre-operative eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 36.3 ± 25.1 81.4 ± 21.1 <0.001
 Pre-operative haemoglobin (g/dL) 11.2 ± 1.7 13.6 ± 1.7 <0.001
 EuroSCORE logistic 6.9 ± 9.0 3.5 ± 4.5 0.086
Surgical variables
 IABP 4 (16.7) 245 (9.3) 0.276
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (min) 103 ± 43 113 ± 49 0.325
 Aortic cross clamp time (min) 61 ± 25 67 ± 37 0.424
 Inotrope use 21 (87.5) 1631 (62.3) 0.011
Hemodilution
 Prebypass haematocrit (%) 31.5 ± 4.9 37.9 ± 4.8 <0.001
 Lowest hematocrit during bypass (%) 21.5 ± 3.1 24.4 ± 4.0 <0.001
 RBC transfusion 13 (54.2) 733 (27.7) 0.004
Intensive care variables
 Inotrope use 13 (54.2) 1215 (46.0) 0.426
 New need for dialysis 5 (20.8) 54 (2.0) <0.001
 Lowest haemoglobin in 1st 24 h (g/dL) 8.4 ± 1.4 9.7 ± 1.6 <0.001
 RBC transfusion 15 (62.5) 995 (37.7) 0.013
 Total length of hospitalization (days) 14.7 ± 10.5 10.9 ± 10.6 0.083
Outcomes
 Acute kidney injury 18 (75.0) 759 (28.7) <0.001
 5-year mortality 6 (25.0) 122 (4.6) 0.001
  1. Data represent number (percent) or mean ± standard deviation
  2. ESRD end-stage renal disease, EuroSCORE European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, IABP intra-aortic balloon pump, RBC red blood cell