Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics and Medication usage of patients with diabetes and CKD

From: Gaps and barriers in health-care provision for co-morbid diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

Clinical Characteristic Total (n = 308)
Age (SD) 66.9 (11.0)
Male/Female (%) 214 (69.5)/94 (30.5)
Main language spoken at home (% English) 238/305 (78.0)
Australia as the country of birth 141/304 (46.4)
Body weight (IQR) kg 86.1 (72.8 – 101.3)
Height (SD) m 1.68 (0.10)
BMI (SD) kg/m2 30.7 (7.4)
Systolic blood pressure (SD) mmHg 134 (18)
Diastolic blood pressure (SD) mmHg 72 (11)
Active Smoker (%) 18/230 (7.8)
Diabetes duration (IQR) yrs. 17.0 (10.0 – 23.5)
Diabetes type (%)
 type 1 28 (9.1)
 type 2 271 (88.0)
 other 9 (2.9)
CKD stage (KDIGO)%
 3a 72 (23.4)
 3b 79 (25.7)
 4 76 (24.7)
 5 (inclusive of 5D) 81 (26.3)
Dialysis (%) 59 (19.2)
 Haemodialysis (%) 42 (71.1)
 Peritoneal dialysis (%) 17 (28.9)
Other multi-morbidity
 Hypertension (%) 291/308 (94.5)
 Dyslipidaemia (%) 256/308 (83.1)
 Ischemic Heart Disease (%) 143/304 (47.0)
 Stroke (%) 38/305 (12.5)
 Peripheral Vascular Disease (%) 82/304 (27.0)
 Diabetic Retinopathy (%) 132/305 (43.3)
 Diabetic Neuropathy (%) 108/305 (35.4)
 Diabetic Nephropathy as a cause of CKD (%) 219/306 (71.6)
Biochemical Parameters
 Haemoglobin (SD) g/L 122 (18)
 HbA1c % 7.3 (6.4 – 8.3)
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 56 (47 – 67)
 Total Cholesterol (IQR) mmol/L 3.9 (3.4 – 4.6)
 LDL (IQR) mmol/L 1.8 (1.4 – 2.5)
 HDL (IQR) mmol/L 1 (0.8 – 1.2)
 Triglycerides (IQR) mmol/L 1.8 (1.2 – 2.5)
 Potassium (SD) mmol/L 4.6 (0.6)
 Calcium (SD) mmol/L 2.31 (0.14)
 Phosphate (IQR) mmol/L 1.23 (1.08 – 1.46)
 PTH (IQR) pmol/L 15.7 (7.8 – 30.6)
Medication Usage
 Insulin only (%) 136 (44.2)
 Non-insulin glucose lowering therapy only (%) 85 (27.6)
 Both insulin and non-insulin glucose lowering therapy (%) 67 (21.8)
 Diet only with other glucose lowering therapies (%) 20 (6.5)
 Statin use (%) 248 (80.5)
 Fibrate (%) 34 (11.0)
 Use of any antihypertensive (%) 278 (90.3)
 Use of ACEI and/or AT2RB (%) 185 (60.1)
 Use of other antihypertensive besides an ACEI/AT2RB (%) 240 (77.9)
 ESA use (%) 64 (20.8)
 Iron supplementation (%) 57 (18.5)
 Phosphate binder (%) 58 (18.8)