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Table 1 Description of studies and measures on provision of primary care in dialysis patients

From: Minding the gap and overlap: a literature review of fragmentation of primary care for chronic dialysis patients

Author, Year Research Question Study Design Setting/Location Units of Observation Outcome Categories
Wells, 1986 [16] Practices of subspecialists and general internists in counseling about smoking and exercise Physician survey Internal Medicine Physicians, US, 1981 Physicians
• nephrologists
• primary care
• trained generalists
• Time to deliver PC
• Provision of various PC, by provider type
Nespor and Holley, 1992 [20] Reliance on nephrology for health maintenance, management of non-renal chronic illness Patient survey Dialysis unit, US-Pittsburgh, PA • Dialysis units, n = 1
• Dialysis patients, n = 74
• Has a PCP
• Receipt of various PC, by provider type
Holley and Nespor, 1993 [19] Reliance on and provision of general health care: in-center hemodialysis vs. peritoneal dialysis patients Patient survey Dialysis unit, US • Dialysis units, n = 1
• Dialysis patients, n = 118
• Has/uses a PCP
• Reliance of various PC, by provider type
• Receipt of various PC, by provider type
Bender and Holley, 1996 [14] Nephrologist PC practice patterns Physician survey Nephrologists, American Society of Nephrology, 1993 Practicing nephrologists, n = 233 • Patients have/use PCP
• Provision of various PC
• Time to deliver PC
• Confidence in ability to provide PC
Alexander et al., 1998 [25] Exploring experience obtaining medical care among dialysis patients Patient interviews Dialysis units in US-Northeast Ohio, Southeast Michigan, 1996–1997 • Dialysis units, n = 4
• Dialysis patients, n = 148
• Receipt of various PC, by provider type
• Quality of overall medical care/satisfaction
Rodgers et al., 2000 [27] Quality improvement effort to improve immunization rates Quasi-experimental intervention Dialysis units, in US-Nevada and Utah, 1998 • Dialysis units, n = 159
• Dialysis patients, n = 7004
• Receipt of vaccination
Winkelmayer, 2002 [24] Use of preventive health care in patients before and after onset of dialysis Retrospective cohort study (claims) Medicare/Medicaid patients in US-New Jersey, 1990–1996 Dialysis patients, n = 1184 Receipt of PC preventive screening
Gilbertson et al., 2003 [21] Effectiveness of influenza vaccination in dialysis patients Retrospective cohort study (registry, claims) Medicare, US, 1997–1999 Medicare dialysis patients, n = 125,500 Receipt of vaccination
Zimmerman, 2003 [17] Opinions of nephrologists, family physicians and dialysis patients, concerning PC delivery to dialysis patients Patient survey
Provider surveys
Canada
Physicians: national sample
Patients: Toronto, Ottawa, Vancouver
• Nephrologists from Nephrology Society, n = 196
• Family Practitioners from random sample of urban practices, n = 167
• Patients from urban dialysis clinics, n = 147
• Time to deliver PC
• Confidence in ability to provide PC
• Opinions of who should provide PC
• Written reports/updates to PCP
• Provision of various PC, by provider type
• Have/use PCP
• Receipt of various PC, by provider type
Shah et al., 2005 [23] Dialysis patient reliance on nephrologists for PC Retrospective cohort study
(Patient survey, chart review)
Dialysis unit, US, 1999–2001 • Dialysis units, n = 1
• Dialysis patients, n = 158
Has/use a PC
Claxton et al., 2010 [18] Management of dialysis patient symptoms Patient survey Dialysis unit, 2007 • Dialysis units, n = 1
• Dialysis patients, n = 62
Receipt of various PC, by provider type
Duval, 2011 [26] Effectiveness of intervention to increase vaccination rates Quasi-experimental intervention Dialysis units in US-Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, 2009–2010 • Dialysis units, n = 275
• Dialysis patients, n = 14,938
Receipt of vaccination (pre-intervention)
Green, 2012 [15] Provider perceptions and practice patterns of symptom management and treatment Provider survey Dialysis units in Mid-Atlantic US; 2010 • Dialysis units, n = 9
• Nephrologists, n = 20
• Physician Assistants, n = 5
• Nurse Practitioners, n = 2
• Time to deliver PC
• Opinions of who should provide PC
• Provision of PC
McGrath et al., 2012 [22] Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in dialysis patients Retrospective cohort study (registry and claims) Medicare, US, 1997–2001 Medicare dialysis patients, n = 464,317 Receipt of vaccination
  1. Abbreviations: PC Primary care, PCP Primary care provider