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Table 2 Foot examination, foot-health care behaviors and podiatry attendance – data are n (%), unless otherwise specified

From: Factors associated with foot ulceration and amputation in adults on dialysis: a cross-sectional observational study

  Foot ulceration Lower extremity amputation
  Total
(N = 450)
Yes
(n = 45)
No
(n = 405)
P-value* Yes
(n = 46)
No
(n = 404)
P-value*
Peripheral neuropathya 228 (50.7) 43 (95.6) 185 (45.7) <0.001* 44 (95.7) 184 (45.5) <0.001*
Peripheral arterial diseaseb 236 (52.4) 42 (93.3) 194 (47.9) <0.001* 39 (84.8) 197 (48.8) <0.001*
Arterial calcification 184 (40.9) 20 (44.4) 164 (40.5) 0.73 21 (45.7) 163 (40.3) 0.592
Foot deformity 341 (75.8) 39 (86.7) 302 (74.6) 0.107 42 (91.3) 299 (74.0) 0.016*
Limited range of motion of first MTPJc 421 (93.6) 39 (86.7) 382 (94.3) 0.29 38 (82.6) 383 (94.8) 0.30
Median peak plantar pressure (IQR), kg/cm 2c
 Total left footd 1.74 (1.50 to 2.06) 2.00 (1.74 to 2.40) 1.73 (1.50 to 2.04) 0.007* 2.02 (1.76 to 2.36) 1.73 (1.50 to 2.03) 0.002*
 Total right footd 1.72 (1.50 to 2.09) 2.11 (1.68 to 2.42) 1.71 (1.49 to 2.05) 0.002* 2.09 (1.80 to 2.42) 1.71 (1.49 to 2.05) 0.001*
Skin pathology 395 (87.8) 42 (93.3) 353 (87.2) 0.34 43 (93.5) 352 (87.1) 0.31
Nail pathology 319 (70.9) 37 (82.2) 282 (69.6) 0.112 34 (73.9) 285 (70.5) 0.76
Inappropriate footwear 297 (66.0) 25 (55.6) 272 (67.2) 0.164 21 (45.7) 276 (68.3) 0.004*
Poor foot-health care 136 (30.2) 10 (22.2) 126 (31.1) 0.289 7 (15.2) 129 (31.9) 0.030*
Podiatry attendance, last 12 months 223 (49.6) 36 (80.0) 187 (46.2) <0.001* 36 (78.3) 187 (46.3) <0.001*
  1. *Significant difference between ‘foot ulceration/amputation’ and ‘no foot ulceration/amputation’ groups, p < 0.05. MTPJ Metatarsophalangeal joint. aPeripheral neuropathy was defined as documentation of known peripheral neuropathy in the medical records; monofilament score < 3/3 (either foot); and/or vibration perception threshold >25 V (either foot). bPeripheral arterial disease was defined as documentation of known peripheral arterial disease in the medical records and/or history of lower extremity revascularization procedure; absence of ≥2 pedal pulses; toe-brachial pressure index ≤0.6 (either foot); and/or ankle-brachial pressure index ≤0.9. cMaximum missing data were for left peak plantar pressure involving 56 participants overall (12.4%). Missing data were for limited range of motion of first MTPJ (left, n = 25; right, n = 15) and peak plantar pressures (left, n = 56; right, n = 55). dData presented are of the total foot and do not include any specific regions (e.g. hallux, 1st MTPJ, etc.). IQR Interquartile range