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Table 2 Papers on levothyroxine malabsorption in dialysis patients taking phosphate binders, retrieved after a systematic review of the literature

From: Phosphate binders as a cause of hypothyroidism in dialysis patients: practical indications from a review of the literature

Author (reference) n Study design Age RRT Vintage (years) Phosphate binder(s) TSH mU/L Associated drugs Therapeutic measures
Iovino 2014 [21] 1 Case report 26 2 Sevelamer 650 No potentially interfering drugs Sevelamer at least 4 h after laevothyroxyne
Wong, 2012 [32] 1 Case report 30 12 Sevelamer ~ 600 Not reported Switch to sublingual levothyroxine.
Sevelamer far from levothyroxine
Granata, 2011 [30] 1 Case report 55 3 Sevelamer 153 Ramipril, Pantoprazole Levothyroxine 2 h after dinner
Arnadottir 2007 [31] 1 Case report 62 NA Sevelamer 297 Amlodipine, Enalapril, Esomeprazol, Paracetamol, Vitamins Levothyroxine at night, at least 4 h after other drugs
Diskin, 2007 [23] 67 Retro-spective study 74.74 (mean) NA Calcium carbonate, Calcium acetate, Sevelamer ** Patients taking interfering drugs were excluded Changing timing of levothyroxine or switching to calcium acetate
  1. Legend/NA/not available
  2. Note: ** TSH levels (mean +/− SD): 3.92+/− 7.83 (calcium acetate); 23.7974+/− 19.50 (calcium carbonate); 20.2908+/− 30.83 (sevelamer)