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Table 1 Characteristics of peritoneal dialysis patients with gallbladder perforation

From: Green dialysate and gallbladder perforation in a peritoneal dialysis patients: a case report and literature review

Reference Geddes et al., 1996 [9] Babin et al., 2006 [10] Chen et al., 2010 [11] Gobel et al., 2011 [12] Chao et al., 2012 [13] Silda et al., 2016 [14] Present report
Age 51 53 80 30 81 81 52
Gender Male M M M F F M M
Dialysis Vintage 7 m 8 y 2 m 7 y 2 y 3 y 3 y
Renal disease ARVD T1DM HT HUS, RCC s/p Nx CHF CIN T2DM, CAD
Symptomsa + + + +
GB stones + + +
Culture of dialysate Enterococcus dirans Negative × 2 NA Escherichia coli, Candida glabrata NA Escherichia coli Enterococcus faecium,
Candidatropicalis,
Presence of green dialysate on day 14 on admission on admission No green dialysate on admission on day 10 on day 6
Green dialysate to surgery (days) 2 2 urgent 1 2 2
Intervention Laparotomy + OC Laparoscopy + OC OC OC + debridement OC OC Closure of perforation
Diagnosis Acute cholecystitis with GB perforation Acute necrotizing cholecystitis with GB perforation Transmural necrotic gallbladder Chronic cholecystitis with focal perforation Gangrenous cholecystitis with wall leakage Phlegmonous cholecystitis with micro-perforations Spontaneous GB perforation
Perforation type I I I II I I I
Outcomes Recovery Recovery Recovery Recovery Respiratory care ward Recovery Recovery
Dialysis outcome Shift to long-term HD Temporary HD for 28 days, Keep in PD Shift to long-term HD Shift to long-term HD NA Temporary HD for 14 days, Keep in PD Shift to long-term HD
  1. ARVD atherosclerotic renovascular disease, T1DM type 1 diabetes mellitus, HT Hypertension, HUS hemolytic-uremic syndrome, RCC Renal cell carcinoma, Nx Nephrectomy, CHF congestive heart failure, CIN chronic interstitial nephritis, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, NA not available, OC Open cholecystectomy, GB gallbladder, HD hemodialysis, PD peritoneal dialysis
  2. asymptoms: fever or abdominal pain