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Table 3 Hazard ratios of end-stage renal disease according to the echocardiographic parameters

From: Systolic and diastolic dysfunction affects kidney outcomes in hospitalized patients

   Univariate Multivariatea
Parameters   HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Ejection fraction 4th quartile (n = 355) 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  3rd quartile (n = 322) 0.22 (0.026–1.881) 0.167 0.26 (0.067–1.027) 0.055
  2nd quartile (n = 322) 1.51 (0.478–4.749) 0.484 0.79 (0.226–2.746) 0.708
  1st quartile (n = 318) 1.33 (0.405–4.348) 0.641 0.12 (0.013–1.093) 0.060
E/e’ 1st quartile (n = 328) 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  2nd quartile (n = 338) 0.64 (0.107–3.828) 0.624 2.31 (0.171–31.098) 0.528
  3rd quartile (n = 338) 0.64 (0.106–3.806) 0.620 0.94 (0.076–11.629) 0.961
  4th quartile (n = 323) 4.13 (1.165–14.635) 0.028 5.20 (0.548–49.273) 0.151
Combined parameterb 1st group (n = 537) 1 (Reference)   1 (Reference)  
  2nd group (n = 466) 1.55 (0.347–6.930) 0.566 1.44 (0.234–8.819) 0.695
  3rd group (n = 138) 4.09 (0.825–20.258) 0.085 4.02 (0.517–31.282) 0.183
  4th group (n = 186) 8.81 (2.386–32.554) 0.001 3.57 (0.596–21.340) 0.164
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, medications, laboratory findings, and other echocardiography findings
  2. bCombined parameter: 1st group, 1st to 3rd quartiles of E/e’ plus 3rd to 4th quartiles of ejection fraction; 2nd group, 1st to 3rd quartiles of E/e’ plus 1st to 2nd quartiles of ejection fraction; 3rd group, 4th quartile of E/e’ plus 3rd to 4th quartiles of ejection fraction; 4th group, 4th quartile of E/e’ plus 1st to 2nd quartiles of ejection fraction
  3. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, E early diastolic transmitral inflow velocity, A late diastolic transmitral flow velocity, e’ early diastolic mitral annular velocity