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Table 2 Results from multivariable Model 2 (adjusted for caffeine) for ln(htTKV) and for mGFR

From: Relationship between caffeine intake and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression: a retrospective analysis using the CRISP cohort

Fixed Effects Ln(htTKV) mGFR
Estimate 95% CI P-value Estimate 95% CI P-value
Age 0.017 0.010, 0.025 <  0.001 −1.362 − 1.700, − 1.024 <  0.001
Sex (Male) 0.084 − 0.040, 0.208 0.195 −0.990 −6.757, 4.780 0.741
Race (White) 0.083 −0.101, 0.268 0.386 −0.811 −9.529, 7.880 0.858
BMI 0.006 −0.006, 0.018 0.345 −0.454 −1.001, 0.094 0.112
Smoke (Yes) 0.072 −0.091, 0.236 0.393 3.474 −4.111, 11.053 0.378
Hypertension (Yes) 0.395 0.263, 0.527 <  0.001 −11.946 −18.060, −5.821 <  0.001
Gene type    <  0.001*    0.018*
PKD1 + truncation Reference   Reference  
PKD1 + no truncation − 0.082 − 0.227, 0.064   1.475 − 5.263, 8.208  
PKD2 + NMD −0.504 − 0.664, − 0.344   10.840 3.427, 18.237  
Caffeine (Any) −0.146 −0.295, 0.003 0.061 1.395 −5.908, 8.714 0.713
Caffeine:Time (Any) 0.006 0.002, 0.011 0.007 0.069 −0.495, 0.631 0.811
Time 0.045 0.041, 0.049 <  0.001 −2.696 −3.187, −2.200 <  0.001
Random Effect   Variance Standard Deviation   Variance Standard Deviation
Patient   0.224 0.474   425.0 20.62
Residual   0.016 0.127   372.8 19.31
  1. *P-value based on F-test with 3 groups. NMD refers to no mutation detected in the genetic analysis