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Table 3 Factors associated with low use of routine medical care (RMC); stratified by age

From: Low use of routine medical care among African Americans with high CKD risk: the Jackson Heart Study

  Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval)
All participants Age < 55 years Age ≥ 55 years
No. of events/N 700/3191 340/1167 360/2024
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age
  < 55 years 1.61 (1.31, 1.98) NA NA
  ≥ 55 years Reference NA NA
Gender
 Male 1.71 (1.41, 2.07) 1.90 (1.43, 2.54) 1.56 (1.20, 2.04)
 Female Reference Reference Reference
Education
  < high school diploma 1.31 (1.07, 1.62) 1.37 (0.98, 1.91) 1.30 (0.99, 1.70)
  ≥ high school diploma Reference Reference Reference
Income category
 Poor: lower-middle 0.97 (0.78, 1.20) 0.95 (0.68, 1.34) 0.96 (0.72, 1.27)
 Affluent: upper-middle Reference Reference Reference
Health insurance
 No 1.52 (1.18, 1.96) 1.40 (0.98, 2.01) 1.69 (1.16, 2.46)
 Yes Reference Reference Reference
Comorbidities & Behaviors
Body mass index, Kg/m2
  < 30 Reference Reference Reference
  ≥ 30 1.17 (0.97, 1.42) 1.08 (0.80, 1.45) 1.25 (0.97, 1.61)
Tobacco use
 Never Reference Reference Reference
 Former/current 1.43 (1.18, 1.72) 1.50 (1.12, 2.03) 1.44 (1.12, 1.84)
Hypertension
 No 1.74 (1.27, 2.39) 1.71 (1.08, 2.71) 1.79 (1.15, 2.79)
 Yes Reference Reference Reference
Diabetes
 No 1.34 (1.09, 1.65) 1.24 (0.88, 1.73) 1.41 (1.08, 1.84)
 Yes Reference Reference Reference
Cardiovascular disease
 No 1.12 (0.85, 1.47) 1.89 (1.04, 3.42) 0.93 (0.68, 1.27)
 Yes Reference Reference Reference
Chronic kidney disease
 No 0.96 (0.75, 1.24) 0.81 (0.54, 1.21) 1.06 (0.76, 1.49)
 Yes Reference Reference Reference
Psychosocial factors
Trust a
 Low 2.16 (1.42, 3.27) 2.32 (1.29, 4.16) 2.07 (1.13, 3.80)
 High Reference Reference Reference
Stress tertile
 Lowest Reference Reference Reference
 Middle 1.16 (.91, 1.48) 1.03 (0.66, 1.62) 1.18 (0.88, 1.58)
 Highest 1.41 (1.09, 1.82) 1.29 (0.82, 2.01) 1.41 (1.02, 1.94)
Anger tertile
 Lowest Reference Reference Reference
 Middle 0.95 (0.71, 1.28) 1.15 (0.73, 1.81) 0.83 (0.55, 1.23)
 Highest 0.87 (0.65, 1.15) 0.88 (0.56, 1.37) 0.89 (0.61, 1.29)
Daily discrimination tertile
 Lowest Reference Reference Reference
 Middle 1.05 (0.83, 1.34) 1.10 (0.73, 1.66) 1.03 (0.76, 1.40)
 Highest 1.30 (1.01, 1.67) 1.15 (0.76, 1.75) 1.46 (1.05, 2.03)
Lifetime discrimination tertile
 Lowest Reference Reference Reference
 Middle 1.10 (0.86, 1.40) 1.16 (0.76, 1.76) 1.09 (0.81, 1.48)
 Highest 0.89 (0.68, 1.17) 1.08 (0.70, 1.68) 0.76 (0.53, 1.08)
Burden of discrimination tertile
 Lowest Reference Reference Reference
 Middle 0.82 (0.65, 1.03) 0.93 (0.65, 1.34) 0.74 (0.54, 1.00)
 Highest 0.66 (0.51, 0.85) 0.70 (0.47, 1.05) 0.64 (0.46, 0.89)
  1. All models were adjusted for the covariates listed above
  2. aAmong participants reporting a usual source of care and non-missing response to question regarding trust (n = 2981)